## Velocity of Current in Wires

Let us have two alternating-current generators linked with wires in a united energy system. For simplicity, let us consider what happens with one wire only. If frequencies of the generators are equal, then any transfer of energy along the wire is out of the question, because, actually, we have to deal with a so-called standing wave.

Fig. 18. There is no energy transfer between sources with equal frequencies.

To observe the desired energy transfer, for example, from A to B, it is necessary to decrease the frequency of the generator B. As soon as the B frequency is decreased, the standing wave begins to move from A to B with velocity V. If we start to move with the same velocity in the same direction, then we will observe the so-called lively standing wave. Even if for a resting observer, the occurrence looks like a rise of current in the wire, but for the moving observer, any flow of current in the wire is out of the question.

Apparently, determining the velocity of the lively standing wave, we also determine the so-called velocity of the energy transfer for a resting observer, which, as a matter of fact, is the same.

Analyzing the formula used for calculation, we find out, that in the situation under consideration, the speed of the energy current depends only upon the artificially created frequency difference.

For example, if the difference between frequencies of A and B is equal to 1 Hz , then the velocity of the energy current is equal to 3030 km/s; but for a frequency difference of 0.001Hz, the current velocity is only 3 km/s.

This means, that if we begin to move in the direction of the energy transfer with a speed of 3 km/s, then for us, the current as a symbol of energy transfer will be meaningless.

Fig. 19. Seeing a lively standing wave by a resting observer.

The statement that the speed of the energy current can vary in a wide range, is easy to check. To do that, it is necessary to make an experiment in which the frequency of the generators should be much higher.

For example, 600 MHz. For this value of the counter frequencies, the standing wave in a wire has a length of about 0.5 m. The only reason to use such a high frequency is to simplify the procedure of control over the motion of a monitored node.

If we change (decrease) the frequency of the generator B for 1 Hz, then the monitored node begins to move along the wire from A to B with a velocity of only 0.25 m/s. Even if for a resting observer such motion is seen as a current of energy, then for an observer, moving with a velocity of 0.25 m/s in direction of B, a current of energy is absent.

If we wish to decrease the speed of the energy current down to 0.125 m/s, then the frequency of the generator B should differ from A as little as by 0.5 Hz.

Fig. 20. Running observer sees a different picture.

From the model discussed, we found that arrhythmia between sources results in energy motion whose velocity depends only on frequency difference. Velocity of the energy current should not be confused with the velocity of the transfer of information at the beginning of the motion, that spreads along the wire with the speed of light.

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