Special Theory of Relativity (STR) Is a Particular Case of the Ether Theory
Conclusions of the relativity theory are proved by many experiments, particularly, when they concern light velocity. It is experimental results that allowed this theory to hold out at the Olympiad of science for such a long time.
And, for all this time, there was an alternative to the STR - the theory of ether, where supporters could not explain in any way the situation which developed in science and which never answered this most principal question, i.e. Why the light velocity does not want to be added and subtracted with the velocity of a system moving in the medium?
Actually, is it possible to be seriously disposed to the ether concept, if it cannot show mechanics leading to a really analogous result - to uniformity of light velocity?
For a long time, supporters of the ether struggled against relativism by intuition, not having effective arguments to counterbalance STR. Arguments of etherists were the most various, up to accusations of intentional falsification of results. As a rule, the main stress was laid on Michelson's experiment, doing this some stated that it contains an error in computations, others stated that the results obtained with its help were intentionally kept in silence.
The question - Show the point, where did Michelson make this fundamental error? - as it has never been clearly answered.
As to the accusations of data falsification, we should keep in mind, that due to the high stability of interferometry, it is still in use for realization of the standard of length, and this is despite the Earth continually changing its velocity as it moves through the ether. A desire to explain this contradiction gave rise to the hypothesis of ether being entrained and carried along by the Earth. Thus, a unique opportunity to explain everything was born.
It was possible to reasonably give up the hypothesis of ether entrainment only after discovering the phenomenon of standing wave compression. Analysis of this phenomenon with respect to the wave nature of intermolecular and atomic bonds yielded an understanding of the mechanism leading to the contraction of physical dimensions when an increase in velocity occurred in the ether. A worthy substitution for the two dimensional Lorenz transformations was found - it was in the three dimensional transformations of physical dimensions herein referred to as Ivanov Transformations.
As far as I am aware, nobody has shown that STR can be shown to be a particular case of the ether theory. Solution of a problem of this kind became possible only after realizing the dependence of physical dimensions of a system on that systems' velocity in the ether.
Following the established tradition, let us list some consequences from the Ivanov transformation:
1. In a system moving relative to the ether, a real contraction of dimensions by all coordinate axes occurs.
It is quite natural that an observer located in a system together with a length standard does not have a direct way to detect any motion in the ether, because both the standard, himself and the objects surrounding him contract synchronously and proportionally due to their electromagnetic wave nature. Denoting the subjective value of the standard as L0 , we can draw a formula for determination of the physical length of the standard:
We have written a general formula. By changing the j angle in it, one can easily obtain dependencies for parallel and perpendicular orientations of the standard:
It should be understood correctly, that in a moving system, the subjective dimension of the standard is always invariable, and, therefore, numerically different from its physical value.
Only at V=0, will subjective and physical dimensions coincide (L = L0). This moment is extremely important, so we have to introduce the ideas of the subjective (local) and the physical (instantaneous) distances.
2. While Lorenz transformations require time deceleration for their own survival, the Ivanov transformations do not need it.
To illustrate this statement, let us make use of a well known method - an imaginary experiment, using the so-called Einstein clock. Refer to the picture (Fig. 8).
Fig. 8. Schemes for calculation of time deceleration: a) by Lorenz; b) by Ivanov
We have considered two schemes of calculation for the purpose of having a clear visualization of the dependence of the idea of the time rate upon the choice of coordinate transformation.
By Lorenz, time deceleration is caused by increasing of the signal path length.
By Ivanov, this path length always remains constant, and it is achieved by contraction of the arm perpendicular to the motion.
Such a solution of the problem allows us to state that, ideally, the time rate does not depend on the speed of a system, and, hence, both moving and resting clocks keep time identically. Let us accept this statement as the second consequence from the Ivanov transformations.
Thus, we have to deal with motion in the ether system, where physical dimensions vary according to the Ivanov transformations. It is necessary to show, that experimental measurement of the parameter of the light speed directly depends upon the choice of the way of synchronizing the clocks utilized in the experiment. We will study two ways of clock synchronization: 1) proposed by Einstein; 2) based on the conclusion about independence of time rate upon velocity.
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