Ken Shoulders PDFs - 12/01/13
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Charge Clusters in Action - Sep 21, 2000

New energy transformations have been found using highly organized, micron-sized clusters of electrons, or EVs, having soliton behavior, with electron populations on the order of Avagadro’ s number. When interacted with solid material, these charge clusters perform a low-energy phase transformation type of atomic disruption that liquefies the lattice and propels the material to a high velocity without apparent signs of conventional heating.

Using an ordinary thermal interpretation, a thermal gradient for bulk material greater than 26,000 degrees C per micrometer would be required to achieve these effects. Evidence will be shown for the EV transiting the solid material, fluidizing it by contributing one extra electron per nucleon for a period considerably longer than the relaxation time, and then imparting momentum to the fluid.

Under such conditions, the impact of this fluid on another solid buries a slug of solidified material to a depth of over 20 micrometers. This abnormal behavior introduces the notion of energy gain produced through a low- energy atomic and molecular phase change coupled with high recombination energy release.

Evidence will also be introduced for the underlying energy production process stemming from the equivalence of an electron-annihilation energy release based on the manipulation of fractional electronic charge.

Permitivitty Transitions - Sep 21, 2000

Highly organized, micron-sized clusters of electrons, or EVs, having soliton behavior, with electron populations on the order of Avogadro's number are represented as the necessary function for modifying the permittivity of space in a downward direction.

The state of existence for this entity reduces its expressed charge by many orders of magnitude below that calculated for the same number and volume of uncontained electrons. The EV is shown to exist in at least two distinct modes of charge masking, with one of them, the black EV, being virtually undetectable using sensitive methods.

A form of inertial propulsion will be discussed that arises from the inertial rectification affects available by modulating the state of the EV, thereby the permittivity of space and concomitant inertia or effective mass of material moving through space. It will be shown that the same type of permittivity change through EV modulation can achieve a unidirectional current flow and that this gives rise to methods for generating monopole affects and vector potentials useful for communication outside the usual current loop generating them.

Consideration will be given to a form of pseudo particle entanglement arising from the tight and pseudo-quantized coupling between the EV structures.

Complex organisms are discussed composed entirely of EV structures that are self-formed at electronic rates without using either mechanical or chemical methods. Some speculations will be made on the benefits of operating such complex entities in regions of greatly reduced permittivity.

A condensed matter dissolution technique will be shown that is capable of cold dissociation of refractory material into a low viscosity fluid. The root process for energy conversion methods resembling "cold fusion" are reviewed and shown to likely spring from the same EV technology capable of producing a modified space permittivity. Consideration will be given to experimental methods for testing affects on time at greatly reduced levels of permittivity.

ICCF-10 Low Voltage Nuclear Transmutation - Aug 31, 2003

Project Goals;

1. to show Nuclear Transmutation using EVs operating at low voltage

2. to present date in mass spectrometric form

3. to define the transmutation pathway

4. to provide a very low-cost mass spectromer design for easy construction and operation by anyone having intermediate skills

Exploring funding issues - Feb 10, 2004

The Observation - This note is written in an attempt to shine some light on the funding problem universally faced by individual explorers of scientific frontiers. This note is particularly appropriate for the subjects of “free energy machines”, “cold fusion” or nuclear waste remediation.

The exploration referred to here is concerned only with scientific investigation on new frontiers where guidance from past records is not as much help as one is led to believe, and in fact, may be a hindrance to efficient progress.

This story has not been made up, as this subject has been a major part of the author’s life. Also, there is not a single note of bitterness in the author’s mind concerning the gulf between the inventor’s world and the academic methods to be discussed here. It is likely that this separation is the only way to preserve the much needed thought independence required for creative thinking and invention in truly new areas.

The author does not advocate joining the explorer with institutions. Even though this union would initially provide funding for advanced exploration, it would likely become an insidious process for removing the freedom to roam into uncharted and unexplored areas.

Energy Conversion from the Exotic Vacuum Revised - Jul 1, 2004

A connection is shown between electron clusters, or EVs, and energy conversion processes yielding thermal energy in excess of the input energy used to form the electron cluster.

This energy conversion process is traced to all known forms of cold fusion claims for over-unity or excess energy production.

A theory of like charge binding as well as highly effective nuclear acceleration using the charge cluster is presented based on local gravity coupling arising from manipulation of the Exotic Vacuum.

What is the Universe made of - Jul 2, 2004

Ordinary matter made from real on-mass-shell lepto-quark fermions and gauge force bosons only accounts for approximately 4% of all the large-scale stuff of our universe, which may be one of a infinity of parallel universes in hyperspace that we call “Super Cosmos.”

I propose that the remaining 96% of our universe consists of two forms of partially coherent exotic vacuum dominated by a condensate of bound virtual electron-positron pairs. Einstein’s gravity emerges from the variations in the macro-quantum coherent phase field of the condensate.

This condensate is the inflation field in the large-scale cosmological limit. Both dark energy and dark matter are simply residual total zero point energy densities that emerge from the vacuum condensate’s intensity variations.

Approximately 73% is anti-gravitating zero point “dark energy” density with equal and opposite negative pressure that is causing our universe to accelerate in its expansion rate. The remaining gravitating 23%, called “dark matter,” is also zero point energy density with equal and opposite positive pressure found concentrated in large-scale structures like the galactic halo that prevents our solar system from escaping into inter-galactic space.

Astrophysical scale geon structures of w = -1 dark matter simulate w = 0 CDM in terms of their gravity lensing. Therefore, dark matter detectors can never click with the right stuff to explain KeelyNet only with false positives.

Supersymmetry partners whizzing through space cannot explain the dark matter in this theory, nor should gravity be quantized in the usual way. The electron, as a Bohm “hidden variable” on the micro-scale for example, is a spatially- extended structure whose self-electric charge repulsion, Casimir force and repulsive spin rotation are balanced by the strong short-range zero point energy induced gravity from its exotic vacuum core.

The electron, and the quarks, shrink in size, up to a certain minimum, when hit with large momentum scattering transfers from strong space warping that makes their surface areas small compared to what they would be in flat space for a given radial distance.

An experimental appendix by Ken Shoulders on "exotic vacuum objects" or "EVO" charged geons made from large numbers of electrons glued together by zero point energy is included.

The zero point force holding as many as one hundred billion electrons together is not the QED Casimir force, which may even be repulsive, but is the strong short-range gravity force induced by the zero point energy by the entirely different process of Einstein's general relativity omitted from the flat space-time QED calculations. These EVOs show anomalous motions and energies that seem to be examples of Alcubierre's "warp drive" and "cold fusion" respectively.

Propulsion Using Zero Point Quantum Pressure - Jul 17, 2004

Experimental observations indicate the availability of a new form of propulsion based on zero point quantum pressure. The Exotic Vacuum Objects, EVOs, being observed are mesoscopic, self-organized electron clusters having over 100 billion electrons, and although partially directed by electromagnetic fields, primary thrust and control is likely derived from warping of space-time by controlled, zero point quantum field distribution over the spatially extended entity.

The primary instruments to be used in this presentation are a pulse generator for EVO formation, the vacuum pinhole particle camera for dynamic viewing and a video camera to record the optical output from the pinhole camera. The pinhole camera and its operation are described in reference 2. Individual frames of video data presented here were inverted so as to present a black on white image for better printing.

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly - Aug 23, 2004

Electron clusters, or EVOs, are shown to be ideal candidates for electrical power generation using easily available methods for manipulation of electronic charge. The work to be done is described as manipulation of the exotic vacuum in a way that takes advantage of the ability to move the EVO against an electrical load using only a fraction of the input power usually used, resulting in an energy gain. However, the high intensity of the process and ease of applying it to mischievous ends portend future difficulties with its use.

When using EVOs for electrical power generation, a simplified way of thinking about the process follows: Forcing a charge to move against a resistance of some kind almost always generates electrical power. This resistance, or opposing force, is sometimes called the counter electromotive force. The movement of the charge is normally done by mechanical input action such as turning a shaft.

However, using charge clusters like exotic vacuum objects, or EVOs, there is a self-propulsion effect of unproven origin, but theorized to stem from zero point energies (4,5), provided whenever their motion is resisted. This self-propulsion is tied to their self-organized shape, which also acts to contain the large number of electrons in very close proximity to each other. The propulsion energy thus derived is many times the required input energy and is no longer subservient to the trite ballistic particle laws usually applied.

The propulsion effect of even small EVOs is clearly seen and simply measured by their ability to move massive quantities of matter to high velocities (6) as well as propel themselves to many times their initial velocity. The self-propulsion to high velocity is revealed in the energy measurements shown particularly in Fig. 4 and Fig. 10 of reference [7] where the input velocity is about 2 KeV and the output is over 10 KeV, but too high to accurately measure with the simplified method used. Using other methods, the velocity increase has been tracked to over 50 KeV, which was the apparatus measurement limit.

The thrust of new work to be done is to contain the EVOs in electrical traps, like well-known quadrupole or Paul traps, to prevent their coming into contact with solid material and destroying it. Finding a way to couple their efficiently derived motion into commonly available external circuitry provides the electrical output power we are seeking.

Superluminal Particle Measurements - Nov 24, 2004

Measurements made on clusters of electrons operating as Exotic Vacuum Objects, or EVOs, show velocities exceeding that of light. A theory of this behavior is presented based on manipulation of parameters available in this new field of exotic vacuum engineering.

The primary goal of this writing is to introduce the notion of how easy it is for particles to exceed the velocity of light, as long as some special circumstances can be tolerated, such as, they are not in our world anymore. Living with that, the realm of superluminal particles is no longer the exclusive domain of atom smashers and huge machinery as the EVO takes you into that realm every time you make a spark to the doorknob.

In fact, miniature Plasma Focus machines have been made and tested on this program that have shown the essential role of EVOs in large PF machines capable of enormous, real-world particle acceleration. The notion will be briefly introduced that it is the characteristic of EVO structures that are responsible for anomalous electron acceleration in almost all walks of life.

A secondary goal is to introduce the reader to the ingenious EVO behavior capable of initiating an entirely new self-organizing realm of construction using nothing but electrons for construction material. The binding energies of these new structures far exceed those of atomic and molecular bonds leading to higher strength, higher mobility and longer life structures.

Short Range Electron Attractive Force - Aug 25, 2004

Statement of Action: There is an attractive force found between closely spaced, free electrons instead of the universally touted repulsion force. This attractive force is effective only at dimensions in the order of atomic spacing, being in the range of 10-10 meters, leaving older repulsion laws intact for large spacing. When this force binds two or more electrons, their expressed field at a distance is reduced. This is a newfound property of this otherwise well-known particle.

The Effect: As shown by many writings of the author, as well as G. A. Mesyats in Russia (1), electrons easily cluster into complex structures having unique properties not available to single electrons. These electron clusters have been named EVs or EVOs by Shoulders in various papers available for download from:, and Ectons by Mesyats.

There are several theories for their existence mentioned in associated literature references but a complete description is still lacking. Whatever the effect is that fosters this electron clustering action, it behaves like an unseen substance that enshrouds electron groups, partly masking their charge.

It is a short-range force resembling a positive charge negating the effect of repulsive electronic charge and can further be defined as a near-field effect that seems to be an innate property of the electron occurring at the time of its creation. This local action is reminiscent of the induction field in electromagnetic theory. This attractive force is a property of the individual electron and not a large group effect, as it extends down in size to electron pairs as is seen in the electron accretion method of forming EVOs, described early on by Shoulders in an issued patent and the references cited above.

Electron Condenser - Sep 24, 2004

An apparatus is proposed for the condensation of electrons to a containable fluid state. This miniature apparatus consists of an ion pumped vacuum system, a split anode magnetron and a quadrupole electron trap fitted with suitable electron injectors, in the form of EVO generators, and numerous ways for analyzing the effluent captured in the trap. The apparatus design emphasizes simplicity and uses only minimal hand tools for construction. The cost of the easily found construction materials required is in the range of a few hundred dollars.

In this writing, the author will show that very new experimental scientific results can be acquired with simplicity and low cost, although this composition is only a brief introduction to the subject designed to engender feedback from others. In the future, details will be added according to responses received.

The writing will be broken into segments aligned with the various components used in the condensation process. These will be: (1) Vacuum system considerations, (2) Magnetron oscillator parameters, (3) Quadrupole trap parameters and (4) System operation.

Large Scale Propulsion using EVOs - Oct 4, 2004

A propulsion method based on the use of Exotic Vacuum Objects is proposed that is potentially capable of passive and controlled lifting of many tons of material against the gravitational field of the Earth per ounce of propulsion apparatus used. The underlying technology, the containment of electrons in fluid form, is also the root process for the very economical generation of electrical power.

Comments on System Behavior: In the system proposed here, there is no mass thrown overboard and the lifetime would seem virtually infinite as long as physical integrity is preserved. In the absence of friction from moving parts, maintenance is minimal. Factually, in the matter of lifetime, there will be myriad new effects to consider that are far beyond our comprehension at this point. We will just have to wait and see what happens in real systems.

The achievable velocity of such a propulsion system would seem to be near light speed, except for the hulk of ordinary material used as a platform. It would not surprise the author if ways were soon found around this limitation. At least for the meanwhile, such a propulsion system would vastly improve present earthbound and near planet transportation.

What's an EVO? - Oct 10, 2004

Intent of This Writing: An EVO (exotic vacuum object) is just another name in a long line of names for a new electronic effect. In the past, it has been called an EV (Electromagnetic Vortex or Electrum Validum for strong electron), charge cluster (this could be just a piece of dirt with no net charge) and CCT for charge cluster technology.

Whatever it is called, the effect can best be characterized by how it is measured using instruments capable of interpenetration in terms of somewhat similar phenomenon. The nearest class of instruments with useful capabilities is those used for measuring the properties of electrons and ions.

Using these, we will assemble a series of observations characterizing the observable entity properties that are most pertinent to new energy and propulsion uses. Use of contemporary buzzwords like zero point energy, space energy or ether and other areas of mystery will be avoided here as they might falsely bias judgment of the true events being measured. It will not even be assumed that the entity being interrogated is an assembly of electrons, even though electrons were put in during formation and an equivalent number of electrons were output at the time of dishevelment.

This writing is thus an attempt to analyze the actions and basic characteristics of the entity while being as free as possible of preconceived notions about its structure. This aim is heavily biased toward the entities use instead of its name or theory of operation.

An EVO Clutch and Microphone - Oct 27, 2004

Engaging The Universal Drive: An EVO is many useful things in our normal electronic world but its most outstanding property to date is the ability to couple into the basic fabric of space. Joe Firmage has proposed a word for describing the fabric of space-time, the most fundamental and universal element of existence we can now imagine, of which all matter is formed. He proposes the word, Potentum.

This can be defined variously as the strong, the mighty and the most basic element of existence we can presently grasp in our minds. We don’t usually see it, but with a little help, we can get a hold on it in such a way that, in some special aspects, it is rendered visible.

The EVO has the ability to do this in a highly controllable fashion thus making it a kind of Universal Clutch as it actually clutches the basic fabric of the universe by biasing the medium with a dense, asymmetrical charge distribution.

Without the asymmetry, there is no traction and all we see is a group of electrons. By making the medium asymmetric through electrical field control, we are awarded the ability to propel the EVO in any desired direction, carrying along with it whatever is attached to the EVO.

EVO Oscillation, the Friendly Enemy - Nov 14, 2004

The Basis of Gain: EVO gain shows itself in the form of a high, thrusting force output for a meager electrical input control power. Normally, the thrust is developed against condensed material that is fluidized by EVO passage and is registered as an easily measured and potentially useful momentum imparted to the material. In this case, energy must be regained thermally from the fluid mass transported, implying a disruption to the initial shape of the structure used, leading to a short apparatus lifetime.

This basic gain mechanism is also available to a pure electronic system if a proper load is placed on the accelerated EVO acting as a cluster of electrons capable of inducing useful fields in the load. In this case, material is not moved and the structure lifetime is not jeopardized.

Whenever a gain of over 1 manifests itself, oscillation can occur in any system providing a feedback of 180 degrees between the input and output. The magnitude of oscillation depends on nonlinear elements incorporated in the feedback path. The beneficial effect of gain can quickly turn to a disaster if not properly regulated.

Energy - Apr 10, 2005

Consider the very evident and seemingly miraculous balanced state of charge we live in. There is almost exactly the same number of positive charges as there are negative ones in this and almost all directly observable nearby planets.

When one thinks of the gigantic numbers involved in achieving this balance, it does seem miraculous until you look at the simplest possible explanation. It is a self-correcting system where all the extraneous charges are selectively cancelled by a very natural process.

The result of this process is to produce a very peaceful state of existence but one putting us in an apparent energy null.

The price for living in the energy doldrums is that we must scuttle about to whip up a few watts.

Although not as obvious as the electrical case, we might also be living in a condition of balanced gravity whereas all we are affected by is what is left over from another cosmic balancing act. Those special things or shapes that were not balanced would have been whisked away from here long ago and deposited elsewhere in the Universe.

Some theoretical considerations of fundamental gravity terms show the possibility of gravitational forces being plus and minus 40 orders of magnitude from where we presently sit. That is a lot of pushing and pulling that could possibly be put to good use if we were to find and utilize a special shape or entity not subject to the time-derived rules of gravitational balance.

Existing in this energy-starved (by energy balancing) region of the Universe has just made us overly conscious of an apparent paucity of energy resources, when in fact; we are everywhere covered up by virtually free sources of energy.

All we have to do to recover vast resources of energy for our use is to warp space a tiny bit. This is just like squeezing a sweet orange to get its nectar. No squeeze—no juice.

EVO Propulsion Basis 2 - Apr 10, 2005

A heretofore-undocumented form of very powerful and efficient propulsion is displayed indicating a connection has been made to something outside our usual sensory system.

EVOs and the Hutchison Effect - May 16, 2005

Nuclear transmutation from low-voltage electrical discharge. All listed technologies utilize EVOs as base technology.

Thermal output capability only by destruction

Electrical output without device destruction

Notion of proper component design as gain basis

With proper design, Hutchison Effect could function as claimed at the low power actually used The energetics of these technologies all have a common basis in electron clustering.

Electromagnetic Pulse Source using Fluidized Electrons - Jul 12, 2005

A new ElectroMagnetic Pulse (EMP) technology is proposed based on the rapid decomposition, in lightning-like fashion, of cubic centimeter quantities of fluidized electrons yielding both high-energy particles and high intensity electromagnetic fields capable of deep penetration, massive disruption of electronic systems and having a long range, low lethality electric stun gun effect of high accuracy.

A simple deployment method is proposed using ballistics by incorporating fluidized electrons into rounds of ammunition ranging from .22 caliber to 20 mm. The possibility of a more sophisticated guidance means employing a beam of light is also introduced.

Although a classic EMP technology is well established, a new offering using fluidized electron disintegration is introduced here as a different approach in that the energy originates from previously fluidized, energetic electrons and is vastly more effective than the well-known microwave only methods presently utilized.

This difference arises partly because there is a disruptive attack on the equipment being disabled by the fluidized electrons ejected at very high velocity as well as having an almost unlimited bandwidth of the high-powered EMP produced. There is a similarity between this method and the first stage of an atomic bomb blast, one of the most effective forms of EMP known.

Electromagnetic Pulse Source using Fluidized Electrons - Appendix I - Jul 9, 2005

“The apparatus that first showed the effect is shown in Fig. 6:1 and is the apparatus in which most of the streamer work was done. When streamers rise up from the center electrode and strike the top, they turn and run radially on the flat surface of the cover glass.

The run is not entirely straight as they approach the cylinder wall, but at times there is a fair approximation to a radial line. When this happens, the line is viewed from the end in the plane of the top, a bright scintillation can be seen. If a piece of white paper is placed around the cylinder, many scintillations and streaks can be seen.

In order to make the effect more obvious, I caused streamers to run in long glass tubes by exciting them with short bursts of RF at a frequency of between 1.7 and 5 MHz. About 10 cycles of RF was the minimum that I could conveniently generate. Under the conditions that produced small, thin streamers, these streamers would run for a distance of 2 inches or so on the inside of the 3 mm glass tube without turning.

Then they would suddenly deflect a small angle and then run straight again. By looking at the deflection point it could be seen that the deflection was caused by something on the surface. I put small grains of various substances on the surface to see what the effect preferred; silica sand was the winner. The sand had bright faces or facets, and I reasoned that it was this optical surface that caused the turn.

I also applied the sand to the center electrode and found that it would cause the launching of a streamer whenever the conditions of angle and field were correct. There was no way to control the process with the apparatus used and the effect was strictly a statistical one.

Someday we will get a control on the effect and it may prove to be a laser-like process generating the beam that the EV then rides upon. If such guidance does become practical, there is a good chance for focusing enormous energy density from multiple sources that are a lot easier to make than conventional lasers.”

Equalizer Two - Jul 12, 2005

I have delayed for a long time before starting into fluidized electrons knowing it would quickly lead to a potentially destructive class of device.

The paper, “Electromagnetic Pulse Source Using Fluidized Electrons” is now out and is perhaps a fiducial point for this new era of troublesome devices. In the beginning, they look like simple tools to “protect our boys from bad old roadside bombs.” In the end, they will likely become the social leveler or equalizer even more likely to succeed than that of Samuel Colt.

The Colt Effect did not succeed as an equalizer because the most powerful could always devise even more powerful weapons. That is not likely to be the case this time around as unimaginably powerful weapons become as plentiful as stones.

The ease of fabricating and using fluidized electrons for malevolent use far exceeds our present ability to apply them sanely, but now that the cycle has started, we must learn rapidly or suffer greatly.

The most salient feature of this newfound ally or foe is that it does not necessarily kill. It is fundamentally a stunning effect against biological species that could be used in a way to minimize harm done to those inflicted with it. If desired, it becomes a tool of control by whoever is the inflictor as it is the pinnacle of shock treatment.

The interesting part of this paradigm is that it works both directions along the power tree structure in that the most powerful can quickly be brought down to the level of the previously insignificant inflictor.

EVO Life Cycle - Mar 24, 2006

An EVO, or Exotic Vacuum Object, begins its life by accreting electrons extracted from gaseous or solid atoms. It then self-transforms into a coherent structure behaving as an entity functioning at greatly reduced expressed charge compared to the number of electrons either put into it or extracted from it at this stage in its life. Charge to mass ratio measurements on the EVO remain the same as that of electrons implying that the mass was also reduced.

Part of the process of this transmogrification involves electron emission within a narrow energy range around 2 KeV. If this initial stage of formation is left undisturbed during a brief flight at high velocity, it transforms again into a non-emitting Black state with even further reduction in expressed charge.

When this black EVO is reduced in velocity to minimize interaction with matter, the entity becomes virtually undetectable using sensitive particle and charge sensing apparatus. This measurement is in apparent violation of conventional charge and energy conservation laws.

While it is clearly evident through various measurements that this disappearance happens in gas up to at least atmospheric pressure, it is speculated that the effect extends to solids thus creating an unexpected form of both transparency as well as presenting a new form of very energetic active shielding from both projectiles and directed beam weapons. A new program for increasing experimental activity is described.

Transmission of EVOs through Metal - Apr 29, 2006

High-density and highly organized clusters of electronic charge, or EVOs, are shown to transit through metal with relative ease compared to that of single electrons. Upon reaching an interface between metal and vacuum, the charges exit the metal somewhat disheveled as clusters and propagate through vacuum as both free electrons and clusters.

An EVO injection velocity of a few hundred volts easily penetrates 1 millimeter of aluminum. Although contrary to established electron penetration theory, lower injection velocities produce greater EVO mobility and lifetime within the metal target. The configuration used provides a cold, intense electron emission source without concern for either work function or geometry of the cathode.

EVOs as WIMPS - May 2, 2006

EVOs [1-3] appear as clusters of electrons capable of suppressing their expressed charge and mass by a measured factor of more than 1 billion below that of the same number of individual electrons. Even in their presently undeveloped state, they could qualify for what is known in astronomy as WIMPs or Weakly Interacting Massive Particles and thought by some to be one source of Dark Matter.

Down to the lowest level of expressed charge measured thus far, the black or non-interactive state of EVOs can be refreshed to the white level of expressed charge and mass by application of short-term pulses of electric field. This behavior raises the hope of “awakening” the black state of an EVO from an even deeper stage of charge and mass suppression, perhaps obtained naturally as a WIMP by a long residence in the solitude of space.

This remarkable behavior requires reevaluation of current notions of what charge and mass really are, especially in such a highly organized state the EVO is apparently adorned in. In any event, this state of low expressed charge provides low interactivity with normal, charged matter—a Hallmark of both EVOs and WIMPs. While considering this gross obfuscation of charge and mass by EVOs, using easily available techniques, one might also consider some cosmic-ray-like events as being the gradual dishevelment of an energetic EVO while entering our atmosphere with the ease and penetrability of a WIMP.

Projectiles from the Dark Side - May 6, 2006

Visualization of homemade WIMPs or Weakly Interactive Massive Particles, a form of Dark Matter, has been made possible through the work of Shoulders, Hutchison and Podkletnov.

These entities are shown to be composed of EVOs, reordered to a black or invisible state through cancellation of their expressed charge and mass. Their utilization portends many new aspects of technology involving penetration and interrogation of previously denied regions of material as well as detailed exploration at great distances due to their particle probe nature thus obviating the need for inverse square laws of propagation.

An even greater area of potential application lies in morphing these electronic entities into replicas of complex, organic structures.

Which Mass? - May 21, 2006

When confronted daily with the ability of an EVO to reduce both expressed charge and mass and also faced with the incessant chant or chorus of, E = mc2, one must ask the question of which mass should we be concerned with as it slides over a range of at least several billion.

The answer implied is that we must use one and only one single particle to accurately apply the law. Still, considering the incredible profusion of the effect of charge clustering, we should know how to cover the questions this effect raises, as the energy laws are supposedly too fundamental to lightly toss them about.

The intended outcome of such a quest is to devise new ways for deriving useful energy from the mass variation effect associated with EVO action. Although I have investigated several such means, I strongly believe I have found neither all nor the best of them.

Dark Matter Messengers - Jun 26, 2006

What It Is: A fanciful sounding mode for communicating information and physical matter is becoming available by using EVOs, or synthetic WIMPs, as a form of information-bearing projectile. These will be capable of rapidly traversing galactic distances and being directed with the selectivity afforded only projectiles.

For all intent and purposes, it is a homemade, miniature black hole that has temporarily “swallowed” ordinary matter as information and that will regurgitate it later upon proper association with another of its kind.

This is definitely teleportation but it is not yet telekinesis of the psychic kind. It is an extremely selective process but one needed when transferring information throughout the very noisy Universe and it is certainly a great improvement over electromagnetic messaging methods.

Shielding from the Inevitable - Jul 24, 2006

I can imagine nothing so inevitable as the use of electric, EVO type projectile guns, as described by the author in Electric Gun Effects. These are closely tied to the development of EVO based energy sources and there is nothing more ubiquitous than EVOs in future energy and propulsion systems.

The author, in a poster paper entitled EVOs and Hutchison Effect, published the beginnings of this trace and made the data available on the web for download at: The basic statement made is that by the time exotic electrical energy generation capability is developed, so will electric guns be available.

However, anyone contemplating being in this new form of gun business would also be well advised to go into the shielding business very quickly.

The broadest statement made in the above mentioned notes is that EVOs are the basis for energy production and transformation in all forms of Cold Fusion, Plasma Focus machines, The Hutchison Effect, Adamenko nuclear transmutation work as well as direct EVO energy production and nuclear transmutation.

This statement has largely gone unheeded but is likely to come to the forefront with the advent of commercial development of any of these energy sources. Because, along with that development comes the availability of EVO projectile guns, as they are virtually the same device.

If anything differentiates the two, it is that the guns are easier to make and distribute. The ubiquitous use of these electric guns demands effective shielding of an entirely new type that is hardly describable at this point but still worth the attempt being made here.

Black Holes as EVOs - Jul 26, 2006

There is a good chance common, small-sized EVOs can be classified as legitimate black holes; although I am sure Astronomers will object to this as much as they object to associating WIMPS with EVOs. Such associations lower the status of astronomy by being compared to mundane and ubiquitous examples. Still, when making a comparison between common, everyday EVOs, even obtained by sparking to a doorknob, the resemblance in a fundamental sense is striking.

EVOs make both negative and positive charges of matter simply go away by removing the effect called charge and mass! If that is not the essence of a black hole, what is?

A laboratory scale EVO is most likely a black hole in every real sense of the term. The size is an entirely different matter and should not be confused with the action produced.

Given this notion of providing an exit strategy from our portion of the universe, would it not be prudent to consider launching EVOs as black holes loaded with radioactive nuclear waste and project them into the vast dumping ground of space?

Although EVOs are capable of radioactive nuclear waste transmutation to a safe species, the process of discharging the whole kit and caboodle into space seems easier to do than first chemically processing and then transmuting the nuclear waste into something more innocuous.

A Leak from our Universe to Another - Sep 15, 2006

Apparently, a physical matter leak occurs between our Universe and another still unexplored one. All that has to be done to show this effect is to generate an EVO and let it subside to its natural black state limit, whereupon it disappears from our cognition.

This produces a highly unexpected but actual disappearance of matter that is accomplished on an everyday basis. The frequency of this event occurs at an astoundingly high rate and the precursors can be seen in natural lightning events like that shown by the author in the essay, EVO Life Cycle.

This reference, along with other writings and background material on allied subjects, can be downloaded from: This black EVO state can even be occasionally seen from such simple events as a spark discharge formed by moving ones body across a rug or car seat and then touching a conductor. The needed quiescent black state is not as frequent as the more normal visible spark, but it is common enough to be ranked above insignificant.

When seeking a physical analogy for the driving force behind this process, which always occurs to produce a blacker EVO state in the absence of disturbance, a pressure analogy can be evoked.

A driving force is seen to occur between the higher-pressure side of our white Universe and the other or black Universe residing in an effectively lower pressure region of space.

It might even be appropriate to signify that the black universe identified here is the much-touted dark matter regime, which is said to dominate in quantity over our normal matter.

Electric Charge Non-Conservation - Dec 30, 2006

An EVO structure, whether in the white or black state, provides an easily measured and unambiguous testimony to the fact that electric charge is not conserved under the conditions of space modification provided by the EVO. Many papers by the author, available for download from:, show the means for making these measurements while the EVO state is in control of electron containment.

The subject of charge conservation is an old one where many views have been used for its theoretical analysis, but for the sake of brevity, only one recent reference will be cited here.

Using EVO methods, charge can be transported across great distances and through numerous barriers without either having to account for a return current loop or unwanted charging of the source.

The transported charge is found only on the object the very penetrating black EVO is awakened within by becoming adequately excited during transit. If the black EVO is not excited adequately, there are indications that the charge it was composed of disappears from our cognizance, if not completely.

EVOs and the Strange Particles of L.R. Urutskoev - Apr 11, 2007

In a paper by L. I. Urutskoev of the RECOM Inst. Kurchatov, Moscow, published in Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Volume 29, Hors série 3, 2004 and available for download at, reference was made in section 8 on page 11 to “Strange” radiation found emanating from an electrical discharge through thin foils of metal.

This present note will associate this strange radiation leaving tracks on nuclear emulsions with the behavior of EVO particles traversing the detecting photographic emulsion used in the experiment while in a gray state of existence. The present author has made available some details on such EVO behavior that can be downloaded from: In particular, a summary essay entitled Electron Ensembles can be used as a guide to other writings.

The Effect is All Around Us: Further, he elaborates that this strange radiation has also been found to originate from commercial power equipment when it is in an “emergency situation” or near breakdown.

Urutskoev states, “Recently, we have found one more fact, not very important from the theoretical standpoint, but very significant for our research group from the financial standpoint. We were able to detect the “strange” radiation on industrial electrical equipment at emergency situation. The traces detected were identical to those obtained in the laboratory.

Power engineers believe that these results would be helpful in elucidating the reason for failure of commercial facilities. However, currently the conclusion is that we detect something but there are still more questions than answers.”

The “strange” radiation is thus more common than previously realized and might be what is feared with high voltage discharges from common electrical transmission lines and other discharging devices. These would escape detection using conventional methods although Urutskoev did state that they were studying a form of miniature cloud chamber suitable for detection. Such EVO generation is not confined to high voltage devices, as it is just a question of field intensity that can occur even at very low voltage in very small devices.

The 6-volt electrolytic cells and ultrasonic devices used in cold fusion produce substantial EVO generation. They can be generated through the triboelectric effect of rubbing stones together through movement of Earth tectonic plates.

The basic effect is all around us but the generation of black or gray EVOs with penetrating power varies greatly with local conditions.

Teleportation using EVOs - Apr 13, 2007

Scope of This Writing: Although this basic transport process has been known and used by the author for many years, by very selective loading of specific nucleons into EVOs and projecting them controllably, the only proof of materials transported, other than electrons comprising the EVO itself, are isolated nucleons.

The efficiency of the process is approximately 1 nucleon per femto Joule of input power. No examples of higher order materials or molecular structures have been verified and the isolated nucleon work is not published.

The main purpose of this writing is to introduce the large-scale work done by Urutskoev L.I. and Liksonov V.I. of "RECOM" RRC “Kurchatov Institute” Moscow, Shchukinskaya st. 12-1, tel. 196-90-90, fax 196-1635, e-mail: and Tsinoev V.G. RRC “Kurchatov Institute” 123182 Moscow, Kurchatov square, 1, tel. 196-73-65. The title of their paper is: “Observation of transformation of chemical elements during electric discharge”. Their paper can be downloaded from:

By such an introduction, those interested in this form of teleportation can become aware of the larger scale of the process instead of only the small-scale work of Shoulders, which operates at a single EVO level for greater clarity in understanding the processes involved.

Microscopic Radiological Treatment using EVOs - May 7, 2007

A non-invasive radiological treatment and analysis method having characteristic dimensions in the 10-micrometer range is proposed.

The method is based on the use of EVOs swept in a 3 dimensional array by both angular deflection and timed excitation to cause local disintegration without disturbing material previously transited.

This disintegration gives rise to highly energetic electron emission for treatment and diagnostics as well as a wideband electromagnetic emission used as a location marker.

Data is made available on known guidance and trigger variables and limitations as well as errors found in measurements made in several nuclear energy assessment methods.

Electron Ensembles - Mar 7, 2007

The Dark Side of Electron Ensembles: For all the good EVOs and their kin seem to do, there is a very dark side to their use by humans who do not yet know how to handle such extremely high energy densities when coupled with the ease of use afforded (23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35).

The problem introduced by EVO usage is that they penetrate great distances into standard material and release their energy at whatever point their level of accumulated disturbance indicates. This means that they can be initially set to a predetermined level of excitation and then destruct at a chosen point for dispensing their contained energy. This amounts to an electrical projectile being capable of destroying any known object bit by bit.

The real difficulty with this method of destruction is that the gun does not need to be reloaded as its energy comes from the virtually inexhaustible source that drives all electron ensembles as EVO energy generators.

One should reflect on the difference between a bomb that destroys itself, thus giving rise to a finite energy release, and a gun that can continue dispensing grief until it finally shoots away its own mount when nothing else is left. The largest hope for surviving this kind of weapon, until we learn how to behave socially, is held in the Shield (32) afforded by the same technology. Unfortunately, this shield is not as easy to design and make as the gun.

Basic EVO Questions - Dec 31, 2008

View of Existing Science - What I say about EVOs is viewed as the ultimate heretical doctrine by established and entrenched science because my vanguard statement is that many sacrosanct laws of present, single particle physics are baloney when considered from the multi-universe view I advance.

For example: neither charge nor mass is fixed in magnitude and energy does not equal mass times the velocity of light squared. In addition, matter, even biological life forms, can be teleported with ease in concealed form at thousands of times the velocity of light.

Nuclear transmutation is a trivial act, as many cold fusion workers have already revealed. This is dissent heresy from a normal, existing science point of view.

Apparatus for Formation and Use of EVOs - Jul 16, 2009

Apparatus is described herein presenting the integration of many component design iterations that have been tested both separately and in small systems. A useful variation on these is brought together in this overall design toward the end goal of generating a single piece of apparatus capable of both forming large EVOs and then testing them for the generation of electrical power, propulsion and weaponry.

This apparatus first generates a small EVO followed by its electrical trapping and reduction of velocity to near zero. The process is then continued by EVO growth to a large size using both electron accretion and injection methods.

In addition to formation, sophisticated EVO size and structure analysis can be carried out in-situ by methods using incorporated electron and photon probe instrumentation leading to final testing using integrated electrical generation and propulsion loads. Although the overall design has not been experimentally verified in the particular configuration shown, there is an accumulation of tested components and methods available for use if the presently suggested design is found wanting. These supplementary methods virtually guarantee a winning outcome for generating a successful piece of apparatus for EVO formation and use.

An EVO Scope for Electrolysis Projectile Measurement - Nov 17, 2009

Whenever an aqueous electrolytic process is run, whether it is for simple electroplating or cold fusion research, there can be an emission of projectiles with mysterious properties that are often referred to in the cold fusion literature as nuclear particles, and more specifically, neutrons.

The author has found these projectiles to be clusters of electrons or EVOs and not nuclear in the usual sense of the word although these large electron clusters can be associated with lesser clusters of electrons called muons or mu-mesons and tauons or tau-minus particles.

A very simple instrument is proposed here that can help clarify the nature of these emitted projectiles. Since the characteristics of the projectiles are of main concern to workers in the cold fusion field, and the author does not consider himself a member of that group, the further development and application of the proposed instrument is left to cold fusion workers.

Several associated experiments that the author has done in the past are outlined in this writing showing the high likelihood of the proposed instrument being able to shed new light on the mysteries of aqueous electrolytic particle projection.

The apparatus being discussed here is very straightforward to build and operate in that it has only 5 simple parts to assemble. A drawing of the apparatus is shown in Fig. 1 on page 2. In use, it is dipped into an operating electrolytic bath and measurements made on the charge sign, velocity and shape of particles that come through the entry dielectric cover of the evacuated plastic cone.

Lightning Process - Nov 9, 2009

Purpose of Writing: I have long associated the actions of plain lightning and ball lightning with EVO behavior seen in the laboratory, although there is a vast difference in magnitude of the ensconced charge. Recently, the job of describing this relationship was made easier by a group of published, high-speed lightning pictures taken by Tom A. Warner of ZT Research. I thought it now appropriate to undertake a written description of the alliance I see between lightning and laboratory EVO data. By doing this, it is felt that a better and more basic understanding of both lightning and EVO behavior becomes available.

Preferences For This Writing: The fundamental assumption in this writing is that much of the lightning behavior shown originates with moving clusters of electronic charge behaving like those seen in laboratory experiments and named EVOs (Exotic Vacuum Objects) by Ken Shoulders. What appears most likely is that many of the main strokes of lightning that are formed are formed after initial seeding of the air with ions created by EVOs large enough to be named ball lightning. Determining the actual size or total charge of these entities is beyond the scope of this treatise and the reader is referred to the ball lightning literature.

The philosophical basis for most of the observations cited here spring from the old Hermetic expression: “As above – So below”

Mass Rectification as Propulsion - Sep 30, 2009

This presentation has a dual purpose. One of these is to augment previous, thinly described claims made by Ken Shoulders on a method of producing inertial propulsion, not requiring mass to be thrown overboard, for a variety of uses including superluminal propulsion for space flight.

The second aim is to show the incredibly slim margin of initial information available to the researcher for making decisions on exploration in Scientific Frontier work. In this second topic, there is intent to point out that not everyone is acclimatized to such a rarefied environment and that they should consider occupying another sphere of influence, whether their specialty is either research or funding.

To lend more veracity to this second part, a subject has been selected whose outcome has not been disclosed to the public. This selection process precludes anyone in the audience knowing in advance which way the arguments will go in reality, thus increasing the value as an intriguing thought process but delaying the ultimate answer.

It is hoped that the subject addressed here, being highly contentious, will create debate and forward motion in the EVO field that has unlocked such possibilities.

There Can be Mass Rectification Using an Oscillating EVO Cycle Between White and Black States That Results in Inertial Propulsion

Safety is Improved by Oscillating EVOs Only Instead of Using Nucleons

No Difference in Thrust Produced Between Nucleons and Electrons by Raising Oscillation Frequency of Electrons

Detecting Fundamental Wave Action in Elementary Particles by Using and EVO - Jul 9, 2010

The time is rapidly approaching when advanced expertise afforded by using EVO technology will allow elementary particles to be interrogated as to what their basic constituents are. These fundamental structures, we classically call particles, are thought by some to be composed of only oscillatory wave patterns that are phase locked into harmonic structures with very long lifetimes, hence, narrow bandwidth.

The fundamental frequency of these oscillations is far above that which can be simply detected and measured by existing oscilloscopes and spectrum analyzers.

However, they still fall well within the accessible range of heterodyne detection methods. All that is needed for frequency reduction, rendering the lower sideband easy to analyze, is two oscillators that can beat against each other in the presence of an incorporated nonlinearity capable of producing a lower sideband which falls within the range of easily available detectors like an oscilloscope.

All of these requirements are fulfilled within a single EVO that is also capable of enfolding nuclei of any element for elemental analysis.

Primordial Substance - Mar 26, 2011

EVOs are considered by the author to be composed of myriad electromagnetic wavelets instead of conventional particles such as electrons. A note on this viewpoint entitled, “Detecting Fundamental Wave Action in Elementary Particles by Using an EVO” was placed on the web for download at:

Further consideration of this complex array of wavelets introduces a strong possibility that the ensemble can also be characterized as a primordial substance capable of, under proper but relatively ordinary conditions, resolving itself through physical manipulation into all known elements and perhaps some yet unknown substances. As unlikely as this assertion presently seems, some supporting evidence will be submitted here permitting such conjecture.

It is in the field of “cold fusion”, where the greatest accumulation of anomalous transmutation evidence exists outside of direct EVO research, and that in spite of the presently ignominious stature of the field, has much to offer.

The author finds that whenever transmutation is found using mass spectroscopy and high resolution microscopy on cold fusion samples, there is an accompanying set of EVO strike marks or tracks signifying EVO presence. These are usually examples of an EVO striking material, such as a metal, where excess charge can be dispelled.

To see such examples, interested readers should refer to early papers by Ken Shoulders and put on the web for download at: In particular, the paper “Energy Conversion from the Exotic Vacuum Revised” shows that all methods of cold fusion energy production and nuclear transmutation are linked to EVOs. The necessity for EVO involvement with cold fusion strongly shows in some of these papers.

Projector Project for EVOs - Oct 3, 2011

A relatively small project is described here that uses a simple construction technology to both make and launch high- velocity EVOs. No direct work has been done toward the end of making an EVO projector but enough data has been incidentally acquired on adjacent projects suggesting a direct project would be feasible.

These charge clusters, having virtually no externally expressed charge, travel through material to great distances.

They are selectively triggered to explosively dishevel at any point along their flight path for the production of both EMP (electromagnetic impulse) and physical damage. One project organization for carrying out the necessary work is briefly described below.

Observations on Pseudo Nuclear Energy Release - Nov 18, 2012

Overview The form of nuclear energy production described here is in alignment with that discussed recently in the literature by Andrea Rossi, as embodied generically in his E-Cat configuration. It is a nuclear process but one without harmful radiation.

It embodies neither conventional nuclear fusion nor fission and the process is harmless to humans. The energy obtained from the process is largely due to an induced change in the atomic mass of participating materials. This change in mass, hence energy, is brought about through the use of EVOs striking the parent atoms. Many such fundamental changes to atoms by EVOs have been published by Shoulders1.

This process can be artificially divided into apparatus parts or units as a means of simplifying their functional description. In abbreviated form, the functional units are: The bombarding EVO, the EVO source, and the EVO target, which is usually the main body of the apparatus. These are the functional elements of the process but they must be supported by other more passive elements or components to obtain the cohesive unit required for the overall process to work.

Proposal for Long Range EVO Program - Nov 21, 2012

This preliminary proposal covers a group of improvements in instruments that are intended to greatly enhance the development of a new field of technology closely related to nuclear energy, but having none of the safety limitations associated with classical nuclear energy.

In addition, probes into very great departures from what we presently know as reality can be taken by physically entering into what appears to be another dimension of space.

Without a substantial departure from the instrumentation presently used by the scientific community, we will take much longer to reach such ambitious goals. The integrated instrument development discussed here will greatly hasten reaching such goals.

Upon completion of the instruments briefly alluded to here, research into areas not presently accessible using conventional apparatus will reveal a host of possibilities that are almost beyond imagination. In the immediate future, the enigmas of so called free energy will be brought to a successful conclusion. These applications can be very robust and give almost boundless economic gains.

Beyond the energy frontier, opportunities will open up for inquires into other universes that are coexisting with our present space and time. This is the natural domain of the EVO as they seem to share two or more Universes, of which they have given us a glimpse.

What is holding progress back at this point is not so much what we are totally incapable of doing, but rather, what we almost willfully refuse to believe in and to work on. The emphasis given the field by adding a few new and useful tools to work with is one thing that will put us steadfastly on the road to the future.

Using the power of such instruments as those shown here, even with small budgets, rapid progress can be made into a future realm of science.

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"Heavier-than-air flying machines are impossible." --- (Lord Kelvin, president, Royal Society, 1895)

"I think there is a world market for maybe five computers." --- (Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943)

"There is no reason for any individual to have a computer in their home." --- (Ken Olsen, president, chairman and founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977)

"The telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no value to us." --- (Western Union internal memo, 1876)

"Airplanes are interesting toys but of no military value." --- (Marshal Ferdinand Foch, French commander of Allied forces during the closing months of World War I, 1918)

"The wireless music box has no imaginable commercial value. Who would pay for a message sent to nobody in particular?" --- (David Sarnoff's associates, in response to his urgings for investment in radio in the 1920's)

"Professor Goddard does not know the relation between action and reaction and the need to have something better than a vacuum against which to react. He seems to lack the basic knowledge ladled out daily in high schools." --- (New York Times editorial about Robert Goddard's revolutionary rocket work, 1921)

"Who the hell wants to hear actors talk?" --- (Harry M. Warner, Warner Brothers, 1927)

"Everything that can be invented has been invented." (Charles H. Duell, commissioner, US Office of Patents, 1899)

"The [flying] machine will eventually be fast; they will be used in sport, but they are not to be thought of as commercial carriers." -- Octave Chanute, aviation pioneer, 1904.

"The ordinary 'horseless carriage' is at present a luxury for the wealthy; and although its price will probably fall in the future, it will never come into as common use as the bicycle." -- The Literary Digest, 1889.

"[It] is, of course, altogether valueless.... Ours has been the first, and will doubtless be the last, party of whites to visit this profitless locality." -- Lt. Joseph D. Ives, Corps of Topographical Engineers, 1861, on the Grand Canyon.

"Landing and moving around on the moon offer so many serious problems for human beings that it may take science another 200 years to lick them." -- Science Digest, August, 1948.

"X rays are a hoax." "Aircraft flight is impossible." "Radio has no future." -- Physicist and mathematician Lord Kelvin (1824-1907)

"I think there is a world market for maybe five computers." -- Thomas Watson, Chairman, IBM, 1943.

"The bomb will never go off, and I speak as an expert in explosives." -- Adm. William Leahy, U.S. Atomic Energy Project, 1945.

"Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons." -- Popular Mechanics, 1949.

"We don't like their sound, and guitar music is on the way out." -- Decca Recording Co., in rejecting the Beatles, 1962.