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02/19/15 - Could 80-year-old ether experiments have detected a cosmological temperature gradient?
KeelyNet In a new study, scientists have proposed that tiny residual effects measured by ether-drift experiments in the 1920s and '30s may be the first evidence of a temperature gradient that was theorized in the 1970s, but never before detected in a laboratory. The theorized temperature gradient is thought to be caused by the solar system moving at 370 km/sec through the cosmic background radiation (CBR), which is the faint electromagnetic radiation that fills the universe.

"The interest of our work is twofold. On the one hand, there is an important historical interest because these small effects were obtained well before the discovery of the CBR (in 1965 by Penzias and Wilson, Astrophys. J. Lett. 142 (1965) 419) and well before the observation of the Earth's motion within the CBR (in 1977 by Smoot, Gorenstein and Muller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39 (1977) 898, with the U2 experiment). On the other hand, the agreement between optical measurements in a laboratory and direct measurements of the CBR in space would indicate how powerful optical interferometers can be."

Background - In the 19th century, one of the most controversial questions in science was whether empty space was truly empty like a vacuum or whether it contained a medium known as ether. Ether had been proposed as a medium through which light waves could travel, since light's wave-like properties had recently been discovered, and it was believed that all waves needed some kind of medium to propagate through.

The first crucial experiment to provide evidence that ether does not exist as classically predicted came in 1887, when Michelson and Morley famously showed that light travels at the same speed in the perpendicular arms of an interferometer. If ether existed—and if it behaved as expected—it would be predicted to slow light down more in one direction than in the perpendicular direction, since motion through the ether is "anisotropic," or directionally dependent.

According to Consoli, Pluchino, and Rapisarda, however, the Michelson-Morley experiment did not yield a strictly null result because of its limited precision. The classically predicted effect of ether-drift was 10-8, while the Michelson-Morley experiment had a precision of 10-9—precise enough to rule out the classically predicted effect, but hazy enough to leave some room for the possibility of a smaller-than-expected effect. In the years since, 20 or so similar experiments have been performed that further increased the precision, with the most recent test achieving the highest precision yet of 10-18 just last year (M. Nagel et al., Nature Comm. 6 (2015) 8174).

Scientists performing these tests today aren't as interested in disproving the existence of ether as they are in validating the foundations of Einstein's theory of special relativity. A difference in the speed of light in any two perpendicular directions in an inertial reference frame would contradict special relativity, since relativity requires a vacuum within which the speed of light is constant. Many important concepts emerge from this fact, including that the universe has no preferred reference frame, that there is no absolute space or time, and that you can never really tell for sure whether you are at rest or in constant motion since all motion is relative.

A matter of interpretation - At first glance, the 20 or so experiments performed since 1887 seem to have steadily improved the precision in support of the view that there is no ether and no preferred reference frame. However, not all the results were perfectly unambiguous. In particular, Dayton Miller's 1933 optical interferometer experiment detected so-called "fringe shifts," which were much smaller than any expected effect but large enough to be considered non-negligible. To make things more complicated, these residual effects were irregular and not consistently reproducible.

At the time, the fringe shifts were written off to temperature differences inside the lab, since fluctuations of even a tiny fraction of a degree could have caused the observations. However, Miller disagreed with this interpretation. He argued that his measurements could not be explained by uniform heating, only by some non-uniform, directional effect.

Miller's experiment was not the only one to detect unexpectedly tiny effects. As Consoli and Pluchino, together with Caroline Matheson at the University of Cambridge, showed in a previous paper (Eur. Phys. J. Plus 128 (2013) 71 and arXiv:1302.3508 [physics.gen-ph]), all of the ether-drift experiments that were performed in gaseous media (either air or helium), including the original Michelson-Morley experiment, detected very small residual effects that were generally ignored.

In their new paper, the researchers argue that all of these residual effects may provide the first indirect evidence of the temperature anisotropy caused by the Earth's motion within the CBR. Previous direct observations of the CBR in space found that the entire solar system is moving at a velocity of about 370 km/sec toward a specific point in the sky, creating a "kinematic dipole," which is basically a Doppler effect. As a consequence, "an observer moving through the CBR would see different temperatures in different directions," as the researchers explain in their paper. But so far no study has actually measured in a laboratory the predicted temperature gradient caused by the solar system's movement.

The scientists explained that the temperature gradient is universal in the sense that all observers moving within the CBR (even hypothetical observers living on distant planets) will see a qualitatively similar effect. However, the quantitative aspects are different and depend on the particular state of motion of each planet and its surroundings. "This motion is called 'peculiar' because it is characteristic of our local position in the universe," Pluchino said. "In fact, it is obtained by combining the motion of our galaxy, and of the local group of galaxies, with a velocity of about 600 km/sec toward what is called the Great Attractor (a large concentration of matter situated at about 100 Mpc from us), along with the motion of the solar system within our galaxy. Therefore, an observer placed at the opposite site of our galaxy will also see a dipole anisotropy but, for him, the kinematical parameters will be different."

By analyzing the data from the interferometer experiments in gaseous systems, the researchers found that all of the residual effects produced velocities in good agreement with the theoretical velocity of 370 km/sec. "The average Miller fringe shift was giving exactly the same observable velocity as in Michelson-Morley," Pluchino said. "Therefore, the standard thermal interpretation of Miller's data is only acceptable if this temperature effect has a non-local origin, i.e., it does not depend on the particular conditions of its laboratory." The scientists explain that the reason why this temperature effect and velocity had not been noticed before now is because their new interpretation is based on relativity.

"The basic difference with the standard point of view is that one should correctly reinterpret the observations according to relativity and not just use the (incorrect) classical formulas," Pluchino said. The researchers also addressed the question of why not all of the ether-drift experiments detected fringe shifts, only those performed in gaseous media. As technology progressed over the decades, researchers carried out the experiments in different media, such as a vacuum or solid dielectrics. Traditionally, researchers have thought that the experiments were all testing the same thing, regardless of the medium.

But the Italian scientists think otherwise. If their proposal is correct, then the CBR temperature gradient would affect gaseous systems more strongly than others because the weakly bound gas molecules can be set in motion more easily by a thermal gradient than the molecules in a solid, which would not be expected to move very much. And in the case of a vacuum, a temperature gradient would have no matter to act on at all.

Implications - The scientists suggest that their interpretation could be tested by a new generation of precise laser interferometers, which like the early experiments could attempt to detect small differences in the speed of light between perpendicular directions in a gaseous medium. This type of experiment would provide a much more precise test than those of the '20s and '30s, and even more precise than the most recent test in a gaseous medium, which was performed in the '60s (which also detected residual time variations that the scientists show are consistent with the new interpretation). If future experiments detect the expected signal, it would have far-reaching consequences on everything from physics to biology.

"If this temperature gradient could be definitely confirmed in a laboratory, it would mean that everything on Earth (and on any other celestial body moving through the CBR) is exposed to a tiny energy flow," Consoli said. "This flow is now very weak but, in the past, was substantially stronger when the CBR temperature was higher. Therefore, it has represented (and still represents) a sort of background noise which is independent of any localized source. It is known that such non-equilibrium condition can induce (or it could have induced) forms of self-organization in matter. Therefore, our result could also be relevant for those research areas which look for the origin of complexity in nature."

What do the results mean for special relativity? - "Clearly, the whole analysis uses a relativistic formalism," Consoli said. "But the final picture is different from standard special relativity. In fact, the temperature gradient due to the Earth's motion within the CBR can affect a weakly bound gaseous matter and, therefore, the velocity of light propagating inside it. Small differences in perpendicular directions can thus be detected with an interferometer. In this way, with measurements performed entirely inside a laboratory, one could distinguish between a state of rest and a state of uniform motion. This is not too surprising since the CBR was not known in 1905."

Rather than speculate on this area, the researchers prefer to focus on more practical implications. "Our findings emphasize the power of optical interferometry in a laboratory," Consoli said. "This could give precious, complementary information to the direct observations of the CBR in space."

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KeelyNet This is a wonderful duel DVD set lasting 2 hours and which presents one man's lifelong study of pyramids, crystals and their effects. Several of his original and very creative experiments are explained and diagramed out for experimenters. These experiments include;

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KeelyNet Finally, I've gotten around to compiling all the files (almost 1,000 - about 20MB and lots of work doing it) from the original KeelyNet BBS into a form you can easily navigate and read using your browser, ideally Firefox but it does work with IE. Most of these files are extremely targeted, interesting and informative, I had forgotten just how much but now you can have the complete organized, categorized set, not just sprinklings from around the web. They will keep you reading for weeks if not longer and give you clues and insights into many subjects and new ideas for investigation and research. IN ADDITION, I am including as a bonus gift, the book (in PDF form) that started it all for me, 'Keely and his Discoveries - Aerial Navigation' which includes the analysis of Keely's discoveries by Dr. Daniel G. Brinton. This 407 page eBook alone is worth the price of the KeelyNet BBS CD but it will give you some degree of understanding about what all Keely accomplished which is just now being rediscovered, but of course, without recognizing Keely as the original discoverer. Chapters include; Vibratory Sympathetic and Polar Flows, Vibratory Physics, Latent Force in Interstitial Spaces and much more. To give some idea of how Keely's discoveries are being slowly rediscovered in modern times, check out this Keely History. These two excellent bodies of information will be sent to you on CD. If alternative science intrigues and fascinates you, this CD is what you've been looking for... - More Info

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KeelyNet Years ago, I had been told by several people, that the US government frequently removes books they deem dangerous or 'sensitive' from libraries. Some are replaced with sections removed or rewritten so as to 'contain' information that should not be available to the public despite the authors intent. A key example was during the Manhattan Project when the US was trying to finalize research into atomic bombs. They removed any books that dealt with the subject and two of them were by Dr. Gustave Le Bon since they dealt with both energy and matter including radioactivity. I had been looking for these two books for many years and fortunately stumbled across two copies for which I paid about $40.00 each. I couldn't put down the books once I started reading them. Such a wealth of original discoveries, many not known or remembered today. / Page 88 - Without the ether there could be neither gravity, nor light, nor electricity, nor heat, nor anything, in a word, of which we have knowledge. The universe would be silent and dead, or would reveal itself in a form which we cannot even foresee. If one could construct a glass chamber from which the ether were to be entirely eliminated, heat and light could not pass through it. It would be absolutely dark, and probably gravitation would no longer act on the bodies within it. They would then have lost their weight. / Page 96-97 - A material vortex may be formed by any fluid, liquid or gaseous, turning round an axis, and by the fact of its rotation it describes spirals. The study of these vortices has been the object of important researches by different scholars, notably by Bjerkness and Weyher. They have shown that by them can be produced all the attractions and repulsions recognized in electricity, the deviations of the magnetic needle by currents, etc. These vortices are produced by the rapid rotation of a central rod furnished with pallets, or, more simply, of a sphere. Round this sphere gaseous currents are established, dissymetrical with regard to its equatorial plane, and the result is the attraction or repulsion of bodies brought near to it, according to the position given to them. It is even possible, as Weyher has proved, to compel these bodies to turn round the sphere as do the satellites of a planet without touching it. / Page 149 - "The problem of sending a pencil of parallel Hertzian waves to a distance possesses more than a theoretical interest. It is allowable to say that its solution would change the course of our civilization by rendering war impossible. The first physicist who realizes this discovery will be able to avail himself of the presence of an enemy's ironclads gathered together in a harbour to blow them up in a few minutes, from a distance of several kilometres, simply by directing on them a sheaf of electric radiations. On reaching the metal wires with which these vessels are nowadays honeycombed, this will excite an atmosphere of sparks which will at once explode the shells and torpedoes stored in their holds. With the same reflector, giving a pencil of parallel radiations, it would not be much more difficult to cause the explosion of the stores of powder and shells contained in a fortress, or in the artillery sparks of an army corps, and finally the metal cartridges of the soldiers. Science, which at first rendered wars so deadly, would then at length have rendered them impossible, and the relations between nations would have to be established on new bases." - More Info

High Voltage & Free Energy Devices Handbook
KeelyNet This wonderfully informative ebook provides many simple experiments you can do, including hydrogen generation and electrostatic repulsion as well as the keys to EV Gray's Fuelless Engine. One of the most comprehensive compilations of information yet detailing the effects of high voltage repulsion as a driving force. Ed Gray's engine produced in excess of 300HP and he claimed to be able to 'split the positive' energy of electricity to produce a self-running motor/generator for use as an engine. Schematics and tons of photos of the original machines and more! Excellent gift for your technical friends or for that budding scientist! If you are an experimenter or know someone who investigates such matters, this would make an excellent addition to your library or as an unforgettable gift. The downloadable HVFE eBook pdf file is almost 11MB in size and contains many experiments, photos, diagrams and technical details. Buy a copy and learn all about hydrogen generation, its uses and how to produce electrostatic repulsion. - 121 pages - More Info

Hypnosis CD - 3 eBooks with How To Techniques and Many Cases
KeelyNet If you have a few minutes, you might want to read my page on hypnosis and all the amazing things associated with its application. Included is an experience I had when I hypnotized a neighbor kid when I was about 14. As well the hypnotic gaze of snakes, the discovery of 'eyebeams' which can be detected electronically, the Italian Hypnotist Robber who was caught on tape with his eyes glowing as cashiers handed over their money and remembered nothing, glamour and clouding the mind of others, several methods of trance induction and many odd cases, animal catatonia, healing, psychic phenomena, party/stage stunts, including my favorite of negative hallucination where you make your subject NOT see something...much more...if nothing else, its might be a hoot to read. - More Info

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KeelyNetThis eBook is the result of years of research into various methods to increase mileage, reduce pollution and most importantly, reduce overall fuel costs. It starts out with the simplest methods and offers progressively more detailed technologies that have been shown to reduce fuel costs. As a bonus to readers, I have salted the pages with free interesting BONUS items that correlate to the relevant page. Just filling up with one tank of gas using this or other methods explained here will pay for this eBook. Of course, many more methods are out there but I provided only the ones which I think are practical and can be studied by the average person who is looking for a way to immediately reduce their fuel costs. I am currently using two of the easier methods in my own vehicle which normally gets 18-22 mpg and now gets between 28 and 32 mpg depending on driving conditions. A tank of gas for my 1996 Ford Ranger costs about $45.00 here so I am saving around $15-$20 PER TANK, without hurting my engine and with 'greener' emissions due to a cleaner burn! The techniques provided in this ebook begin with simple things you can do NOW to improve your mileage and lower your gas costs. - eBook Download / More Info

The Physics of the Primary State of Matter
KeelyNet The Physics of the Primary State of Matter - published in the 1930s, Karl Schappeller described his Prime Mover, a 10-inch steel sphere with quarter-inch copper tubing coils. These were filled with a material not named specifically, but which is said to have hardened under the influence of direct current and a magnetic field [electro-rheological fluid]. With such polarization, it might be guessed to act like a dielectric capacitor and as a diode... - More Info

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KeelyNetNo time to sit back and watch videos? Here are 15 interesting presentations you can download for just $5 each and listen to while driving, working, jogging, etc. An easy way to learn some fascinating new things that you will find of use. Easy, cheap and simple, better than eBooks or Videos. Roughly 50MB per MP3. - More Info

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An assortment of alternative science videos that provide many insights and inside information from various experimenters. Also MP3s extracted from these DVDs that you can listen to while working or driving. Reference links for these lectures and workshops by Bill Beaty of Amateur Science on the Dark Side of Amateur Science, Peter Lindemann on the World of Free Energy, Norman Wootan on the History of the EV Gray motor, Dan Davidson on Shape Power and Gravity Wave Phenomena, Lee Crock on a Method for Stimulating Energy, Doug Konzen on the Konzen Pulse Motor, George Wiseman on the Water Torch and Jerry Decker on Aether, ZPE and Dielectric Nano Arrays. Your purchase of these products helps support KeelyNet, thanks! - More Info

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Alternative science covers a wide range of interests. Generally, it includes gravity control, free energy, electronic healing techniques, all forms of energy conversion, antigravity, levitation, overunity, time travel (as well as slowing down or speeding up local time).

Also clearly covered is the art of power generation (ideally zero point or aether conversion), space travel, physics of matter and energy, sound/acoustics and how it can be used to produce useful phenomena, electric or magnetic forces to produce useful phenomena, various types of motors, vacuum energy, dimensional travel and shifts, medicine, hydrogen generation and how it is used.

It also covers oil/petroleum and how it can be used to produce energy and products, weather control for cancelling earthquakes, tsunamis, fires, floods and to produce rain or clear weather on demand, oxygen/ozone therapy, nitrogen as a motor driver, water generation and manipulation via steam and vacuum, ecological restoration techniques, biophysics, rejuvenation and an unending list of other subjects, most of which are accepted by 'orthodox' science.

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