June 28, 1991                                   GRAV3.ASC        

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All About Gravitational Waves                            
by Gregory Hodowanec                      
Reproduced without permission from                    
Radio-Electronics magazine April 1986                         
by The Trace - June 1, 1991     

Abstract:     

Are gravitational waves  the  source of noise in electronic devices?    

The author believes so, and describes a simple circuit to detect the waves.     

The author has developed a new cosmology that predicts the existance    
of a new  type  of gravitational  signal.   We  are  publishing  the    
results of some of his experiments in the hope that  it  will  further    
experimentation as well as alternate explanations for his results.    

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Einstein predicted the  existence of gravity waves - the counterpart    
of light and radio waves - many years  ago.   However,  he predicted    
the existence of  quadrature-type gravity waves.  Unfortunately,  no    
one has been able to detect quadrature-type gravity waves.     

Consequently, the author developed, over the years, a new cosmology,    
or theory of  the  universe,  in  which  monopole  gravity waves are    
predicted.  The author's theory does  not  preclude the existence of    
Einsteinian gravity waves,  but they are viewed as  being  extremely    
weak, very long  in  wavelength,  and  therefore  very  difficult to    
detect unequivocally.  Monopole  signals,  however,  are  relatively    
strong, so they are much more easily detected.     

Monopole gravity waves have been detected for many  years; it's just    
that we've been used to calling them 1/f "noise" signals or flicker    
noise.  Those noise signals can be seen in low-frequency electronic    
circuits.  More recently, such signals have been called Microwave    

Background Radiation (MBR);  most  scientists  believe  that to be a    
relic of the so-called "big bang" that created the universe.     

In the author's  cosmology, the  universe  is  considered  to  be  a    
finite, spherical, closed  system; in other words,  it  is  a  black    
body.     

Monopole gravity waves  "propagate"  any  distance  in  Planck time,    
which is about  10^-44  seconds;   hence,   their   effects   appear    
everywhere almost instantaneously.  The sum total of background flux    
in the universe gives rise to the observed microwave temperature, in    
our universe, of about three degrees kelvin.     

Sources of monopole   gravity  waves  include  common  astrophysical    
phenomena like supernovas,  novas,  starquakes,  etc.,  as  well  as    
earthly phenomena like  earthquakes,  core  movements,  etc.   Those    
sorts of cosmic   and  earthly  events  cause  delectable  temporary    
variations in the amount of gravitational-impule  radiation  present    
in the universe.     

Novas, especially supernovas (which are large exploding  stars), are    
very effective generators of oscillatory monopole gravity waves.     

Those signals have a Gaussian waveshape and a lifetime of only a few    
tens of milliseconds.   They  can  readily impart a portion of their    
energy to free particles like molecules, atoms, and electrons.     

The background flux, in general, is  fairly constant.  Variations in    
the backgrouns flux   are  caused  by  movements   of   large   mass    
concentrations like galaxies, super-galaxies, and black holes.     

These movements create gravitational "shadows," analogous to optical    
shadows.  When the  earth-moon-sun  alignment  is  just  right,  the    
gravitational shadow of a small, highly  concentrated mass -- a black    
hole, for example  -- can be detected and tracked  from  the  Earth.    
So, keeping those  facts  in  mind,  let's look at several practical    
methods of detecting gravitational energy.     

Electrons and Capacitors    
------------------------     

As stated above, gravity-wave energy can be imparted to ordinary    
objects.  Of special interest to us  are the loosely-bound electrons    
in ordinary capacitors.  Perhaps you have wondered how a discharged    
high-valued electrolytic capacitor  (say 1000 uF at  35  volts)  can    
develop a charge  even  though it is disconnected from an electrical    
circuit.     

While some of  that  charging could  be  attributed  to  a  chemical    
reaction in the capacitor, I believe that much of it is caused by    
gravity-wave impulses bathing the capacitor at all  times.   And the    
means by which  gravity  waves transfer energy is similar to another    
means of energy transfer that is  well  known  to  readers of Radio-    
Electronics: the electric field.     

As shown in Fig. 1-a, the presence of a large mass  near  the plates    
of a capacitor  causes a polarized alignment of the molecules in the    
capacitor, as though an external DC voltage had been applied to the    
capacitor, as shown in Fig. 1-b.     You can verify that yourself:            

Drop a   fully-discharged   1000-uF,   35-volt   electrolytic           
capacitor broadside on a hard surface from a height of two or three feet.            

Then measure the voltage across the capacitor  with  a  high-           
impedance voltmeter.            

You will  find  a  voltage  of  about  10 to 50 mV.  Drop the           
capacitor several times on opposite sides, don't let it           
bounce, and note how charge  builds  up to a saturation level           
that may be as high as one volt.     

In that experiment,  the  energy  of  free-fall  is   converted   to    
polarization energy in  the  capacitor.  The loosely-bound electrons    
are literally "jarred" into new polarization positions.    

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Vanguard note...         

We must be careful before jumping  to  such  conclusions without        
regard for  the  more  natural  property  of the  piezo-electric        
effect.  Capacitor  construction  can  consist  of  a variety of        
materials, many of which include  a  metal  foil.  Note that all        
metal has a crystalline structure, therefore, all metals to some        
degree possess piezo-electric properties.         

The Piezo-electric property is most easily demonstrated  by  the        
use of  any  crystal,  most  commonly quartz.  When a crystal is        
subjected to  bursts of electrical  energy  occurring  at  sonic        
rates, the  crystal  will  convert  the electrical  energy  into        
mechanical movement  which then percusses the air at the rate of        
the electrical frequencies, i.e. a speaker.         

The inverse of this process can  be  used  to convert mechanical        
pressure into  electrical energy.  Any abrupt  mechanical  shock        
applied to  the  crystal  will  therefore produce electricity, a        
process Keely referred to as "shock excitation."         

In regard to the dropping of the capacitor to allow it to strike        
the floor, the question follows, is the striking on the floor in        
actuality converting the abrupt mechanical shock into electrical        
energy which then does not bleed off until discharged?         

If in fact the movement of a capacitor through space will induce        
a charge on the plates of the  capacitor,  then  we can see some        
interesting possibilities.  Most important of all  the direction        
towards a  free  energy  device  using  the  moving  plates of a        
capacitor.  Maybe this is the  secret  of the Testatika, the M-L        
convertor and others which use electrostatic chopping.         

A more  interesting experiment, indeed, a proof  of  the  claim,        
would be to spin one or more capacitors at various diameters and        
speeds and  monitor the developed voltage.  This could very well        
lead to some quantitative observations.     

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In a similar  manner,  gravitational   impulses   from  space  "jar"    
electrons into new polarization positions.     Here's another experiment:            

Monitor a  group  of  similar  capacitors that  have  reached           
equilibrium conditions   while   being   bathed   by   normal           
background gravitational impulses.            

You'll observe that, over a period of time, the voltage           
across all those open-circuited capacitors will be equal, and           
that it will depend only on the average background flux at           
the time.   Temperature  should  be  kept  constant  for that           
experiment.     

I interpret those facts to mean that  a  capacitor develops a charge    
that reflects the  monopole  gravity-wave signals existing  at  that    
particular location in  the  universe.   So, although another device    
could be used, we will use a capacitor as the sensing element in the    
gravity-wave detectors described next.     The simplest detector    

---------------------     

Monopole gravity waves generate small  impulse  currents that may be    
coupled to an  op-amp configured as a current-to-voltage  converter,    
as shown in  Fig.  2.   The current-to-voltage converter is a nearly    
lossless current-measuring device.     

It gives an output voltage that is proportional  to  the product of    
the input current  (which  can  be  in  the  picoampere  range)  and    
resistor R1.  Linearity  is  assured  because  the  non-DC-connected    
capacitor maintains the op-amp's input terminals at virtual ground.     
The detector's output may be coupled  to a high-impedance digital or    
analog voltmeter, an  audio  amplifier,  or  an  oscilloscope.    In    
addition, a chart  recorder  could  be  used to record the DC output    
over a period of time, thus providing a record of long-term "shadow-    
drift" effects.     

Resistor R2 and capacitor C2 protect  the  output  of  the  circuit;    
their values will depend on what you're driving.  To experiment, try    
a 1k resistor and a 0.1 uF capacitor.     

The output of  the detector (Eo) may appear in two forms,  depending    
on whether or  not  stabilizing  capacitor Cx is connected.  When it    
is, the output will be highly amplified  1/f noise signals, as shown    
in Fig. 3-a.     

Without Cx, the circuit becomes a "ringing" circuit  with  a slowly-    
decaying output that  has a resonant frequency of 500-600 Hz for the    
component values shown.  In that  configuration,  the  circuit  is a    
Quantum Non-Demolition (QND) circuit, as astrophysicists call it; it    
will now actually display the amplitude variations  (waveshapes)  of    
the passing gravitational-impulse bursts, as shown in Fig. 3-b.     

An interesting variation  on the detector may be built by increasing    
the value of sensing capacitor C1  to  about  1000-1600  uF.   After    
circuit stability is  achieved, the circuit will respond  to  almost    
all gravity-wave signals in the universe.  By listening carefully to    
the audio output  of  the  detector you can hear not only normal 1/f    
noise, but also many "musical" sounds  of  space,  as  well as other    
effects that will not be disclosed here.    

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Vanguard note...            

Several years  earlier, Hodowanec was claiming  that  he  had           
actually made  contact  with  someone on the planet Mars.  He           
said the signals eventually evolved into intelligible           
patterns which  indicated  there was a decimated civilization           
still in existence on the planet.            

We have the papers and will  list them in the near future for           
those who might be interested...this is what  he refers to in           
the comment  "other  effects that will not be disclosed here"           
and was due to the national  nature  of the magazine in which           
the article was published.            

He says a cone of receptivity from or to Mars  was the reason           
that the  signals could only be detected at certain locations           
on either planet.  In other  words,  you must be in the right           
place at  the right time and with the right  equipment.   The           
signals essentially used modulated gravitational waves.     

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An improved detector    
--------------------     

Adding a buffer  stage  to  the  basic circuit, as shown in Fig.  4,    
makes the detector easier to work  with.   The  IC  used is a common    
1458 (which is a dual 741).  One op-amp is used as the detector, and    
the other op-amp multiplies the detector's output by a factor of 20.    
Potentiometer R3 is used to adjust the output to the desired level.     

When used unshielded,  the  circuits  presented here  are  not  only    
sensitive detectors of   gravitational   impulses,   but   also   of    
*electromagnetic* signals ranging from 50-500 GHz!  Hence, these    
circuits could be used to detect  many  types  of signals, including    
radar signals.     

To detect only  gravity  waves, and not EMI, the circuit  should  be    
shielded against all  electromagnetic  radiation.  Both circuits are    
low in cost and easy to build.  Assembly  is  non-critical, although    
proper wiring practices should be followed.     

Initially, you should  use the op-amps specified;  don't  experiment    
with other devices  until  you  attain satisfactory results with the    
devices called for.  Later you can experiment with other components,    
like low-power op-amps, especially  CMOS  types,  which  have diodes    
across their inputs to protect them against high input voltages.     

Those diodes make  them  much  less  sensitive  to   electromagnetic    
radiation, so circuits  that use those devices may be used to detect    
gravity-waves without shielding.     

The circuit in Fig. 4 is the QND or  ringing  type, but the feedback    
resistance is variable from 0.5 to 2 megohms.  That  allows  you  to    
tune the circuit to the natural oscillating frequency of different    
astrophysical events.     

Huge supernova bursts, for example, have much larger amplitudes, and    
much lower frequencies  of  oscillation  than  normal supernovas and    
novas.  Hence you can tune the detector for the supernova burst rate    
that interests you.  With the component values given in Fig.  4, the    
resonant frequency of the circuitcan  be  varied between 300-900 Hz.    
The circuit of Fig. 4, or a variant thereof, was used to obtain all    
the experimental data discussed below.     

In addition, the  circuits that we've described in this article were    
built in an aluminum chassis and then  located  within an additional    
steel box to  reduce  pickup  of  stray  EMI.   Power   and   output    
connections were made through filter-type feedthrough capacitors.     
In the QND   mode,  coupling  the  detector's  output  to  an  audio    
amplifier and an  oscilloscope  gives  impressive  sound  and  sight    
effects.     

Fluctuations generally reflect passing gravitational  shadows.   The    
author has taken  much  data  of  the  sort  to  be discussed; let's    
examine a few samples of that data  to  indicate the kind of results    
you can expect, and ways of interpreting those results.     

Sample scans    
------------     

Shown in Fig.  5 is an unusual structure that was  repeated  exactly    
the next day,  but  four  minutes earlier.  The pattern was followed    
for several weeks, moving four minutes earlier per day.     

That confirms the  observation  that   the  burst  response  of  the    
detector was related to our location on earth with  respect  to  the    
rest of the   universe.    The   change  of  four  minutes  per  day    
corresponds with the relative movements  of  the  earth and the body    
that was casting the "shadow."     

The plot of Fig. 6 appears to be a supernova, probably  in  our  own    
galaxy, caught in the act of exploding.  The plot of Fig. 7 was made    
four days after  another supernova explosion; that plot reveals that    
that supernova left  a  well-developed   black   hole   and   "ring"    
structure.     

You may find it interesting to consider that visual  indications  of    
those supernovas will  not  be  seen for several thousand years!  As    
such, it might  be  "quite  a  while"   before   we   get  a  visual    
confirmation of our suspected supernova!     

Last, Fig. 8 shows a plot of the moon's gravitational  shadow during    
the eclipse of  May  30,  1984.   Note that the gravitational shadow    
preceded the optical shadow by about eight minutes!     

That gives credence  to  our  claim   that   gravitational   effects    
propagate instantaneously.  Relatedly, but not shown  here,  a  deep    
shadow is consistently  detected  whenever  the center of the galaxy    
appears on the meridian (180 degrees)  hinting of the existence of a    
"black hole" in that region.     

Conclusions    
-----------     

In this article we discussed the highlights of a new  theory  of the    
universe that predicts the existence of monopole gravity waves.  We    
then presented details  of  a  circuit  that  can  be used to detect    
monopole gravity waves.     

The author has monitored those signals for ten years so is confident    
that you will be able to duplicate  those results.  Needless to say,    
the subject of gravity waves is a largely unexplored  one, and there    
is much yet to be learned.     

Perhaps this article   will   inspire  you  to  contribute  to  that    
knowledge.  In your  experiments,  you  might  consider  trying  the    
following: Operate several detector circuits at the  same  time  and    
record the results.     

Separate the detectors  --  even  by  many  miles --and record their    
outputs.  In such experiments, the  author  found that the circuits'    
outputs were very similar.  Those results would seem  to  count  out    
local EMI or pure random noise as the cause of the circuit response.     

For more information  on  the  subject  of gravity you might consult   
Gravitation_ by C. Misner, K. Thorne,  and J. Wheeler, published by    
W.H.  Freeman and  Co.,  1973.   Also,  the article,  "Quantum  Non-    
Demolition Measurements" in  _Science_,  Volume  209,  August 1 1980    
contains useful information on the  QND  type  of  measurement  used    
here.    

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Sidebar: Rhysmonic Cosmology     

Ancient and Renaissance physicists postulated the  existence  of  an    
all-pervasive medium they  called  the _ether_.  Since the advent of    
sub-atomic physics and relativity, theories of the ether have fallen    
into disuse.     

Rhysmonic cosmology postulates the  existence of rhysmons, which are    
the fundamental particles of nature, and which pervade the universe,    
as does the ether.     

Each rhysmon has  the  attributes  of  size,  shape,  position,  and    
velocity; rhysmons are arranged in space in a matrix structure, the    
density of which varies according to position in the universe.     
The matrix structure  of  rhysmons  in  free space gives rise to the    
fundamental units of length, time,  velocity, mass, volume, density,    
and energy discovered by physicist Max Planck.     

Fundamental postulates of the Rhysmonic Universe can  be  summarized    
as follows:             

o The universe is finite and spherical    
        
o Euclidean  geometry  is  sufficient  to describe Rhysmonic              
Space.   
         
o The edge of the universe is a perfect reflector of energy. 
           
o Matter forms only in the central portion of the universe.  
   
The matrix structure   of   rhysmons    allows   the   instantaneous    
transmission of energy  along  a  straight  line, called  an  energy    
vector, from the  point of origin to the edge of the universe, where    
it would be reflected according  to  laws  similar  those  giverning    
spherical optics.     

In Rhysmonic Cosmology,  mass, inertia, and energy  are  treated  as    
they are in  classical  mechanics.   Mass  arises,  according to the    
author, because "particles in rhysmonic cosmology must be the result    
of changes in the `density' of the  rhysmonic  structure,  since the    
universe is nothing more than rhysmons and the void."     

In a "dense" area of the universe, such as the core of a particle, a    
number of rhysmons are squeezed togther.  This means that every    
particle has a    correlating   anti-particle,   or   an   area   of    
correspondingly low density.  In addition,  a particle has an excess    
of outward-directed energy  vectors,  and  an anti-particle  has  an    
excess of inward-directed energy vectors.  Those vectors are what we    
usually call electric charge.     

Gravity is not  a  force  of attraction between objects; rather, two    
objects are impelled towards each  other by energy vectors impinging    
on the surfaces of those objects that do not face each other.     

Newton's laws of  gravitation  hold,  although their  derivation  is    
different than in Newton's system.     

Gravitational waves arise  in various ways, but, in general, a large    
astronomical disturbance, such as  the  explosion  of  a  supernova,    
instantaneously modulates the   rhysmonic  energy   vectors.    That    
modulation might then  appear,  for  example,  superimposed  on  the    
Earth's gravitaional-field flux --  and  it  would  be detectable by    
circuits like those described here.    

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Diagrams    
--------                                       
                                        Fig. 2   -  A  Basic   gravity-wave
                                        detector is very simple.  The
        - - - - )| - - - -- - - - -.    charge build-up on capacitor C1
        .     Cx 470pF             .    is due to gravity-wave impulses
        .                          .    amplified by IC1 for output.
        .                          .
        .                          .
        .    R1 1.3M               .        R2 see text
        o----v^v^v^----------------o   -----v^v^v^------------------O DC
        |                          |   |                             Output
        |             ^            |   |
        |          _  | +9V        |   |
        |        2| \_|7           |   |
        o---------|   \_           |   |
       _|_        |IC1  \_ 6       |   |     C2 see text
       ___ C1     | 741  _>--------o---o-----|(---------------------O Audio
        |  .22   3|    _/                                            Output
        o---------|  _/4
        |         |_/ |
        |             v -9V
        |
        |-----------------------------------------------------------O Gnd





                                                                      O    
             Output
             R1 500K     R2 1.5M          R5 100K                     |
        -----^v^v^v------^v^v^v--    |----^v^v^v----------------------o
        |                   ^   |    |                                |
        |                   |   |    |                                |
        |          _        |___|    |       _    ^ +9V               |
        |        2| \_          |    |     6| \_  |                   |
        o---------|   \_        |    o------|   \_|8                  |
       _|_C1      |IC1-a\_ 1    |    >R4    |IC1-b\_  7               |
       ___ .22    |1/2   _>-----o    >5K    |1/2   _>-----------------|
        |        3|1458_/       |    >     5|1458_/
        o---------|  _/       R3>    |  |---|  _/ |4
        |         |_/        10K><---|  |   |_/   |
        |                       >       |         v -9V
        |                       |       |
        |-----------------------o-------o-----------------------------O Gnd

       Fig. 4 -- A buffered output stage  makes  the  gravity-wave detector
                 easier to use.

       Parts List - Simple Detector       Parts List - Buffered Detector
       All resistors 1/4-watt, 5%.        All fixed resistors 1/4-watt, 5%.
       R1 - 1.3 megohm                    R1 - 500,000 ohms
       R2 - see text                      R2 - 1.5 megohms, potentiometer
       Capacitors                         R3 - 10,000 ohms, potentiometer
       C1 - 0.22 uF                       R4 - 5000 ohms
       C2 - see text                      R5 - 100,000 ohms
       Cx - see text                      Capacitors
       Semiconductors                     C1 - 0.22 uF
       IC1 - 741 op-amp                   Semiconductors
                                          IC1 - 1458 dual op-amp
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