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| File Name : BDNLTR.ASC | Online Date : 07/30/96 |
| Contributed by : Rick Andersen | Dir Category : ENERGY |
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bdnltr1a.asc
7/27/96 by Rick Andersen
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When I had uploaded ANDERSEN.ASC up to KeelyNet in February of this year
(1996), I sent a copy to Tom Bearden through the mail, not really expecting
any response from him (although I did 'wish' for one in that file).
To my surprise, Mr. Bearden did respond-- in fact, he sent me THREE documents:
A response letter (a document in itself) which is reproduced here, a new 'What
is Scalar EM'-type paper, and a short paper to be published in one of the alt.
energy periodicals. He was a gentleman all the way, considering how in my
ANDERSEN file I had 'taken him to task' regarding his use of wave mechanics
terminology in my trying to understand where he was and where he now stands
regarding Scalar EM. He fully expected that I would eventually upload his
letters to KeelyNet-- in fact, he instructed me to do so, but only after I had
waited at least 10 days while a colleague was applying for a patent on a
device which will form the basis for the world's first STAR TREK -TYPE
"SUBSPACE COMMUNICATIONS" SYSTEM...
What follows is part 1 (pages 1-8) of his 16-page letter; pages 9-16 can be
found in the next file, BDNLTR1B.ASC.
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A Letter From Tom Bearden In Response to My File ANDERSEN.ASC
-------------------------------------------------------------
February 15, 1996
Dear Rick:
Just wanted to get off a quick response to your welcome letter and critique.
I was very pleased at the constructive way you look at things; that's always
welcome! It has long been my firm position that (1) anyone who tries to do
something new makes some mistakes along the way (I sure do, and I still have
to have good erasers on my pencils!), and (2) in this emerging "field that
is not yet a field," researchers do not have to agree with each other, but
they should disagree like gentlemen, i.e., politely. Also, anyone who takes
the time and effort to construct such a careful critique is to be commended.
And so I was delighted at your approach and findings.
I want to send just a few comments; unfortunately I'm "dead in the water"
with 16 hour days until well past June 1996. But we hope to put one or more
"new EM systems" on the market by mid-summer or late fall. So I just have
time to make some "hit and miss" observations that may be helpful to you.
Time and Time Reversal
----------------------
Physicists have no understanding whatsoever of the basic element-- TIME.
It's still one of the great mysteries of both physics and philosophy. So if
one doesn't know what TIME is, or how its passage is operationally CREATED,
then the business of a time-forward timestream and a time-reversed timestream
(always relative, of course, to the external OBSERVER'S timestream, which
seemingly is always time-forward) can get very, very confused and messy.
That's exactly where physics is at present.
However, there is an electromagnetic mechanism that generates the flow of
time itself. I discovered the gist of it in 1971 while at Georgia Tech to
get my master's degree. Have only published just a bit on it; but have
recently covered it a bit more in papers I am slowly writing for The Virtual
Times, Internet node WWW.HSV.COM. It is an engineerable mechanism, so it
can eventually be TESTED, and falsified or upheld.
Basically, present physics considers that photons-- which are composed/made
of "energy x time"-- only carry ENERGY! That's like saying a moving board,
made of length x width, can only carry length and not its width! Plus which,
no one really knows what a PHOTON is. E.g., in 1951, four years before his
death, Einstein wrote to one of his oldest friends:
p. 1
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p. 2
"All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought
me no closer to the answer to the question, 'What are
light quanta?' Of course, today, every rascal thinks he
knows the answer, but he is mistaken."
And the picture hasn't changed since he wrote that. I spent an evening once
with Eugene Wigner, the physicist who put time reversal into quantum
mechanics, and a scientist whom I greatly admired. For an hour or so we had
a most delightful conversation, until he asked me to explain what I do and
to explain scalar electromagnetics. I explained that in my view a photon
transports both energy and time, and that a mass that "absorbs" a photon's
ENERGY (which just turns into a wee bit of excess mass, via Einstein's
equation m=E/(c^2) must temporarily turn into MASSTIME, not mass, since it
is now "coupled" to a time-tail (the delta-t portion of the photon that
just "lost its energy". Then when this MASSTIME emits a photon, it turns
back to MASS (the time-tail of the intermediate "masstime" is torn off by
the emitted photon, to couple with the photon's energy, leaving behind an
entity-- mass-- which a priori did not and could not exist in time.)
Wigner was thunderstruck. He fully agreed that the photon was composed of
energy x time, but did not believe it therefore "carried a little piece of
time" was well as a little piece of energy. So, he affirmed, it was only
the energy that was quantized. Of course I had stated that it was the whole
photon (action, or angular momentum) that was quantized, not just the energy
component by itself. The energy will be DISCRETIZED, but not quantized.
I did not press the issue further, because I had too much respect for
Wigner to press him. But I was quite taken aback that he could believe that
something made of BOTH energy and time, could only carry a finite amount of
ENERGY but could not carry a finite amount of TIME!
The virtual photon exchange in the local vacuum (i.e., the magnitude of the
scalar potential of the local ambient vacuum) determines the rate at which
little virtual ENERGY x TIME quanta interact with a given mass at that
locality. And that rate of "adding and subtracting little essentially-
infinitesimal time-jumps" determines the ambient "rate of passage of a mass
particle through time." [The observable photon exchange of the mass with its
environment represents the extra jumps added onto the fundamental "background
rate of passage" of the mass through time.]
Note that the ambient vacuum's virtual photon exchange with the mass is the
electrical charge of that mass. (Even neutrons do this, since one quark is
continually flipping in each nucleon, so that protons in the nucleus
continually turn into neutrons and vice versa.) In short, this "ambient
passage through time" is the object's electrical charge, and that's what
determines it. Note that physics already accepts the positive charge as just
a time-reversed negative charge; Dirac, e.g., did not predict the positron
as such; instead, he predicted an electron traveling backward in time, which
we (the external observer) could only see as a positive charge traveling
forward in time but in opposite spatial direction.
This relationship between standard massless charge PHI of a fundamental
particle and the ambient potential of the local vacuum also implies that
ELECTRICAL CHARGE IS NOT QUANTIZED, [just as Tesla stated], and now that is
rather easily shown as follows:
p. 2
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p. 3
Electrical Charge Q is not Unitary
----------------------------------
First, q is not a UNITARY thing at all, even though physics erroneously
treats it that way! This is easily seen. Any fundamental electrical charge
(e.g., an electron or a proton) automatically has its own scalar potential
PHI, as is well-known. Well, PHI of vacuum is just the virtual photon flux
of vacuum, or it can be so modeled. The PHIe of the electron, then, just
represents a change or gating in the virtual photon flux of the local ambient
vacuum [all potentials superpose; the electron's potential is just superposed
upon the ambient vacuum potential (AVP), although usually the AVP is just
ignored.] That fits well with particle physics, where any electrical charge
is automatically a broken symmetry (in that very vacuum flux). Also, a
reversal of electric charge is also a time-reversal, and vice versa. So any
electrical charge is already a little "engine." It is gating a little part
of the ambient photon flux of the vacuum through its mass, and then back out
to the vacuum. THAT'S WHAT ELECTRICAL CHARGE IDENTICALLY IS. For the
electron, it's just that PHIe of the electron that couples to and interacts
with the mass, and it's entirely MASSLESS. So q becomes a system of two
things, rigorously defined as follows:
q== m sub q x PHI sub q = mass x massless charge [1]
[double equal sign == originally appeared as a triple-lined equal sign]
So what we have done is clearly differentiate between the MASSLESS part of
Q from the MASSLESS part [sic?], and show the coupling action as the
coupling operator x. This is the first rigorous definition of electrical
charge ever advanced, insofar as I'm aware. To quote M.P. Silverman, "And
Yet It Moves: Strange Systems and Subtle Questions in Physics", Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1993, p. 127:
"The theory of quantum electrodynamics provides a comprehensive
and (as far as experiment has been able to confirm) correct
description of the interaction of charged matter with electro-
magnetic fields. And yet, curiously enough, we do not know
exactly what charge is, only what it does. Or, equally
significantly, what it does not do."
But since potentials superpose, then let us add a potential PHI2 to the
local vacuum potential PHIv, so that the total ambient potential PHIt=
(PHIv + PHI2). Let us now look at an electron placed in that potential PHIt.
Now the mass of the electron is exposed to a different (let us take a higher)
value of ambient virtual photon flux. Consequently, it will change its
massless electrical charge PHIe (its VPF exchange rate) and also its mass
before being reemitted, and each one's energy portion turns into a little
bit of excess mass while lingering, as we covered before.
If an electron could never change its massless charge PHIe, then it could
never have a greater PHI flux density on one side than on the other.
Consequently it could never develop a del-PHI across it. There would then
exist no E-field, and the electron would not be translated.
Tesla stated he regularly made (in his very high voltage experiments)
electrons that had some 50 times the charge of a "mormal" electron that was
driven only by the ambient vacuum potential PHIv, and not by (PHIv + PHI2).
Tesla came close to the more modern interpretation I gave above; he
p. 3
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p. 4
considered that charged occurred as thin surface layers on the electron mass,
and additional layers could be added or subtracted.
So you see, we have just rather thoroughly revised the foundations of
electrodynamics, with equation [1]. And now we are consistent with
demonstrated change of the rate of flow of time, and of mass, in relativistic
situations. Increasing a mass's velocity through the vacuum flux increases
its interaction rate with the virtual photon flux (VPF), just as driving a
car into a rain increases the reaction rate of its windshield with raindrops.
This gives an alteration in massless charge, plus also an increase in mass
due to ADDITIONAL VPF absorbed and "lingering" momentarily in the mass, with
their delta-E portions temporarily turned into delta-m's via delta-m =
delta-E / c^2, but with their time-tails remaining momentarily coupled to
the mass, so that the mass is actually now MASSTIME.
Relativistic increase of mass is actually an increase of masstime. You get
the "time dilation" simultaneously. The above is why.
It is this lingering of the delta-E / c^2, in the "mass region", and the
coupling of the time-tail so that not mass but now "mass time" exists, that
makes a mass "exist" in the first place.
Now the "arrow of time" reveals itself, when we consider the nature of an
atom, with its "time-forward" electrons outside, and its time-reversed
nucleus "inside" the electron shells as Faraday cages. In other words, the
electrons are in orbit (1st order picture only), so photons absorbed in
one point of their orbit, linger a bit, and are re-radiated at a different
point. In short, the electron shells continually scatter WHATEVER order is
incoming in the photon flux exchange. So disordering of EM energy (i.e.,
ENTROPY) is continually occurring by this photon scattering from the electron
shells. Since that is largely what we "see" and observe, we "see" and observe
a positive time stream where (1) the past is continually destroyed (dis-
ordered) and the future is not yet available. So the overall entropy of the
photon interaction with atoms indeed yields the apparently one-way direction
of time's arrow. Yet this is only half the story; we will pick up the
missing NEGENTROPIC half shortly.
The observable-photon exchange with the electron shells/shields results in
discrete "jumps" of the atom through time. Mostly this observable-photon
exchange occurs serially; i.e., it's mostly SINGLE PHOTON AT A TIME inter-
actions. In short, it's a serial operation, not a parallel operation. On the
other hand, if the signal density of the environment gets sufficiently high
(say, on the order of 500,000 signals per second per square meter), then
the probability of multiphoton interaction will have significantly increased.
In that case, one starts to get the nonlinear optical effects: PUMPING,
PHASE CONJUGATION, SELF-TARGETING, AND THE LIKE. Then in the exposed living
body, one gets very anomalous "deep penetration" of even very weak electronic
smog signals, where the cells and their parts act as pumped phase conjugate
mirrors. This creates a self-targeting effect, wherein the emitted PCRs from
the outermost absorbing cells target and backtrack impinging natural EM
signals from deeper within the body. This creates a nonlinear "spurious
energy diffusion" effect, wherein the spurious energy-- even though minute--
readily penetrates deeply into and throughout the body, including into the
p. 4
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p. 5
bone marrow where the immature cells of the immune system are born. This is
"low level jamming" of the internal EM that the body uses to CONTROL the
production of those immune cells. So now you begin to get erratic immune
cells being formed. Slowly, over a long period of time, that noise jamming
of the immune system results in rather noticeable immune disorders (arth-
ritis, etc.) and also noticeable cellular disorders such as leukemia,
cancer, genetic changes, etc. Since the MASTER CELLULAR CONTROL SYSTEM
(Popp's version, extended Becker's version also) is directly affected, then
so is normal cellular mitosis. If you expose the person to a very much
denser electronic smog (as in the Persian Gulf war), then you get an accel-
eration of all the above EM smog symptoms and disorders that USUALLY can
result only over a long period (years). That's the real explanation of the
Gulf War Syndrome, and that's why it covers such a bewildering array of
symptoms. The other Gulf War factors augmented and aggravated the causative
electronic smog factor, but they were not the PRIMARY culprits. That's also
the solution to the problem of how electronic smog does or does not produce
long-term cumulative effects in exposed persons. Note that the "energy
deposition" experimental methodology presently being utilized by most EM
bioeffects researchers simply assumes away the problem, and will never,
never show what I have described above BECAUSE IT EXCLUDES THAT FUNDAMENTAL
"DEEP DIFFUSION" MECHANISM. That's why the laboratory experimenters have not
been able to clearly demonstrate any causative mechanism for the epidemio-
logical studies that show correlation between long term exposure to weak
EM fields and radiation, and cancers and leukemias. As Devyatkov stated,
it's the sheer number of signals-- regardless of theor weakness or the
sources producing them-- that is the main causative variable. I put it a
little more exactly: It's the sheer signal density that drives the probabil-
ity of multiphoton interactions instead of single photon interactions,
which in turn drive the anomalous "deep penetration" and long-term debili-
tating effects. I put all that in my Priore paper in "Explore!", with all
the technical mechanisms in grand and gory detail.
Some two decades ago I was also able to define MASS, without referring to
"its ability to resist a disturbing force." Mass also is a dynamic energy-
flowing, changing system. That definition took a bit of doing, but it
appeared in my odd and perhaps a bit naive little paper, "Quiton/Perceptron
Physics: A Theory of Existence, Perception, and Physical Phenomena,"
National Technical Information System, Report AD-763210, 1973. The paper
contains a new definition of mass independently of force, something which
exists nowhere else in physics. One kg of mass represents 17.053 x 10^50
"switches per second" of action quanta across the surface of the mass,
in a flux exchange between the mass and its environment, where one switch
equals h/(4pi). The same paper, though crude, derives Newton's three laws
of motion in relativistic form and the square law of gravitation.
But back to our "time stream." There are jillions of time streams, SIMUL-
TANEOUSLY, for any mass moving forward in time. Time streams have internal
structure, and are composed of a multiplicity of much finer time streams.
A mass "moves through macroscopic time" in successive little "discrete
jumps," due to the observable-photon flux, where after each jump the mass
exists as mass, and DURING the jump it exists as masstime. So "the"
macrotime stream is like a special sewing machine stitching a cloth; the
p. 5
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p. 6
stitches go in one at a time, but each stitch is "pulled back out" prior
to the next one. That's the macro timestream.
At the same time, the "continuity" of the mass's "existence (in time),"
relatively speaking, is provided by the myriads upon myriads of little
virtual photon interactions occurring with that mass (as electric charge)
in any finite length of macrotime, no matter how small. For one "OBSERV-
ABLE-PHOTON induced jump," jillions and jillions of "far, far tinier
VIRTUAL-PHOTON induced jumps" have occurred. So these "inner, hidden,
virtual photon induced" time streams are all woven into the "macro" time-
stream induced by the observable-photons.
So time-flow has an internal structure, which is electromagnetic and can be
directly engineered, using an approach based upon the two Whittaker papers.
Now re-examine this notion of "entropic" macrotime flow, as determined by
the observable-photon scattering interaction with the electrons in the
electron shells of atoms. For each photon interaction with an electron,
there is an equal and opposite or antiphoton NEGENTROPIC interaction with
the nucleus. (As explained elsewhere, there is no "photon" interaction as
such anyway; the photon always occurs in space coupled with its antiphoton
twin, as a spin-2 GRAVITON.
For every divergent/scattering/entropic/positive-time photon interaction
with the electron shells, there is an opposite and equal reconvergent/
negentropic/negative-time antiphoton interaction in the nucleus. THAT'S
WHAT HAS BEEN "HIDDEN" IN NEWTON'S THIRD LAW ALL ALONG-- THE NEGENTROPIC
HALF OF SPATIOTEMPORAL CHANGE.
When a graviton (photon/antiphoton pair) approaches an atom, it sees a
separated assembly of negative charges (time forward, in the electron
shells), and a slightly separated assembly of positive charges (time-re-
versed, in the nucleus) charges. So it sees an assembly of dynamic
electrical dipoles, considering one positive charge coupled with a negative
charge (we are just to rough first order here, of course, but that is
sufficient). Now in a dipole, one end is TIME-FORWARD (exists in forward
or entropic time flow) and the other end is TIME-REVERSED (exists in the
backward or negentropic time flow). That's particle physics, not
Tom Bearden. So the incoming graviton is "split" by the receiving dipole.
The forward-time portion of the split graviton (i.e., the photon part)
interacts with the forward-time portion of the atom (the electron end of
the dipole) whilst the time-reversed portion of the split graviton (i.e.,
the antiphoton) of the graviton interacts with the reversed time portion
of the atom (the positive end of the dipole, which is in the atomic
nucleus). Therefore the nucleus recoils (Newtonian 3rd law recoil).
That is the normal reaction, except that now we have added the causative
mechanism for Newton's third law reaction force. Note that it agrees with
quantum field theory, where all mechanical and electromagnetic forces must
be generated by absorption and emission of virtual photons. It follows
that such must be true also for Newton's third law, and we have now shown
it overtly.
Now if we have a phase conjugating material (sufficiently nonlinear
material), then the antiphoton cannot reach the nucleus. Instead, the
incoming EM waves (actually longitudinal and composed of gravitons, not
just single photons but coupled
p. 6
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p. 7
photons/antiphoton pairs) undergoes MULTIWAVE interaction in space, not
PHOTON/PARTICLE interaction. The antiphotons are redirected in this wave
interaction, externally away from the atom rather than into its nucleus.
In the well-known phase conjugate mirror, the antiphotons are redirected
as the phase conjugate replica wave. Notice we are not just using the
QM notions; we are following the "macro wave" picture. But what it means
is that the nucleus now will not recoil, because the antiphoton/photon
interaction that creates Newtonian third law recoil of the nucleus does not
occur.
This is a DEMONSTRATED experimental fact. In a phase conjugate mirror, no
matter how powerfully pumped, the antiphotons (of either the input signal
wave or of the pump waves) never reach the nuclei. Consequently the nuclei--
and the material they compose-- do not recoil because the GENERATING INTER-
ACTION for the Newtonian third law force did not occur.
In the Sweet vacuum triode experiment where we reduced the weight of the
device by 90% on the test bench, we used an adaptation of the foregoing
notion (which due to legal constraints I stll cannot PRECISELY reveal).
I hinted at in the the Ansatz paper in IECEC, but am still unable to say
much more about it. Let's just say that, if you make a phase conjugate
mirror highly pumped at ELF frequencies (Sweet was using 60 Hertz), and
do the pumping in the internal Stoney/Whittaker/Ziolkowski channel inside
the scalar potentials, you will get beautiful nonlinear optical effects
at low frequencies!
THIS IS A MAGIC SECRET; MARK IT WELL! In the internal channel, you are
now in the region where myriads and myriads of "pump" waves-- represented
in the particulate view as the absorption and emission of virutal photons,
or as the virtual photon flux exchange between the ambient vacuum and the
mass-- are occurring continuously, at every frequency imaginable. Therefore
all frequencies, regardless of low or high or optical, will all act in the
nonlinear fashion. In other words, all that business of time-reversed
waves, time-reversed particles, absence (or increase or decrease) of nuclear
recoil, everything, gets involved. This way you get the NLO effects at ELF.
The gravitational effects occur as an inverse function of the frequency.
So the lower the frequency, the better. You can hradly obtain or measure
the antigravity effects at optical frequencies. At ELF, they are easily
measurable and obtainable. But you can't do much to get EM phase conjugation
at EXTERNAL frequencies. At INTERNAL ELF frequencies, it's the rule rather
than the exception.
At any rate, all that mess was necessary, to clarify this business of time
and time passage rate and time-reversal. It ain't as advertised in the
leading textbooks. And it is directly engineerable.
Notice that we've also got the exact mechanisms for homeopathy in the above,
if we bother to dig it out explicitly and show it. It's there for the
taking, and it is engineerable. You see, in equation 1, the homeopathic
procedure of "potentizing" can simply "SWZ-structure" the magnitude-fixed
PHI-sub-q portion of the electric charge q, where we insist that
q== PHI-sub-q x m-sub-q. This "structuring" of the massless charge flux
can easily be shown by the superposition of potentials. Two charges with
some deterministic SWZ structuring in the PHI-sub-q portions, will interact
DIFFERENTLY than two charges with only
p. 7
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p. 8
"randomized" SWZ structures. Since charge and charge distribution largely
is responsible for driving chemistry reactions, then this means that we
can change the chemistry by SWZ structuring charges, via Whittaker's 1904
paper (the second one of the two I so often quote). Note, however, that
we have changed and extended both classical and quantal electrodynamics,
by destroying one of their favorite postulates: the postulate that every
charged fundamental particle of a given type (e.g., electrons) is identical
to every other such particle. Now individual electrons can also be
individualistic in their internal SWZ structures comprising their PHI-sub-
e's. Homeopathy does the "mixing of potentials" and thus the "potentizing"
indirectly, by altering the H-bonding structures of the solution. The
H-bondings (making and breaking) can be treated as a single potential, as
Hsu showed. This "fluid H-potential" thus decomposes according to Stoney/
Whittaker/Ziolkowski. "Mixing" potentials of dissolved compounds alters
the entire H-potential, since potentials superpose and their inner structures
also diffuse and superpose. By combining Whittaker, Kaznacheyev, Priore,
and Hsu, the H-potential can be directly and strongly altered electromag-
netically.
Ordinary EM theory utilized Whittaker's 1904 paper, but not his 1903 paper.
The resulting "other" potentials are sometimes referred to as "superpoten-
tial" theory, and the other potentials (Debye potential, Nisbet potential,
Dirac potential, etc.) were also found to be most useful. They are all
takeoffs in the manner of Whittaker 1904, though different potentials result.
A good paper that discusses all this is Patrick Cornille, "Inhomogenous
Waves and Maxwell's Equations." Chapter 4 in "Essays on the Formal Aspects
of Electromagnetic Theory, Aklesh Lakhtakia, Ed., World Scientific, New
York, 1993 (pages presently elude me). In fact, the parent book of that
paper is a "must" for anyone seriously interested in WHAT OF ALL THIS the
present electrodynamicists know and use, and what of it they do not.
Cornille, e.g., clearly shows that Maxwell's equations are directly created
by scalar potential interferometry. As he states, this means that EM force
field waves are created by the interference of SOUND-type scalar potential
waves, or "sound creates light". This strongly supports Tesla's original
statement that EM waves in the vacuum are actually EM sound waves, much
like sound waves in a gas. It also validates my own long-standing assertions
of scalar potential interferometry (based on the SWZ work) and its ability
to create ordinary EM fields and waves at a distance.
To properly address the "advanced and retarded" solutions, I recommend a
very fine paper: Milo Wolff, "Beyond the point particle-- a wave structure
for the electron." GALILEAN ELECTRODYNAMICS, Sept/Oct 1995, p. 83-91.
Wolff gives the background of the advanced and retarded wave solutions,
starting from Wheeler and Feynman's exposition. Wolff cites three of his
own papers which formulated the results summarized in his paper. He arrives
at the notion of two worlds within our universe: (1) the familiar 3D envi-
ronment, governed by the natural laws and observed by us using our five
senses and their extensions as laboratory instruments. This is the world
of energy-exchange; and (2) a second world of scalar waves, which form the
structures of the basic particles, electron, proton, and neutron which
compose the material objects and the space (ether) of our world of energy
exchange. This unseen scalar world is basic and DETERMINES THE REAL ACTION
in both worlds.
p. 8
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[end of part 1 of Bearden's letter to R. Andersen]
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The following is part 2 of Tom Bearden's Feb. 1996 response letter to
R. Andersen's file, ANDERSEN.ASC, on KeelyNet.
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p. 9
Quoting Wolff, p. 84:
"...an Energy Exchange Mechanism can be seen to underlie the force
laws and even special relativity, the deBroglie wavelength, and Con-
servation of Energy. For example, the force laws describe force as
the change in energy over distance, F = dE/dr. Therefore, whatever
motivates the change in energy generates what we observe as force.
The coulomb and gravity force laws do not describe what creates these
forces because they are only formulas to calculate force. That is,
they do not imply any particular energy exchange mechanism."
Wolff then formulates this mechanism for the electron wherein it depends
on the existence of other matter in the universe. This is a very insightful
article! Wolff discusses the requirement that particle properties require
perception-communication between particles, that measurement of time requires
a cosmological clock, the role of space, Mach's principle, and his theory
of the new electron. I wrote a long letter to Wolff, giving him the Stoney/
Whittaker/Ziolkowski background of the "inner EM" etc., profusely referenced.
Received a nice letter back from him.
Now, of course, one can take equation [1] above and apply Whittaker 1903 to
it, and mathematically decompose the PHI-sub-q term into a set of hidden
bidirectional EM wavepairs, in a harmonic sequence. So now one can clearly
show that the massless electrical charge PHI-sub-q of any "charged mass" q,
can and does have an internal, hidden, bidirectional EM wave structure.
The homeopathic researchers should eventually incorporate that one, as we
stated above, because it is rigorous theoretically, and it can be experi-
mentally dealt with as well.
Stoney and Whittaker showed the SUM set of internal bidirectional EM waves
that comprise a scalar potential PHI. Later, circa 1985 Ziolkowski inde-
pendently rediscovered the internal biwave set comprising the potential,
and also added the PRODUCT set. Since the product of EM waves is technically
MODULATION, then Ziolkowski laid the groundwork for "hidden" EM communica-
tions "inside" the scalar EM potential.
Further, the inner signal EM (i.e., modulations on several of the internal
SWZ waves inside a DC potential) is not necessarily restricted to the speed
of light. Bulk gradients in the entire vacuum potential-- i.e., the so-
called "EM force field" waves-- are limited to the speed of light. But they
require changing the amplitudes of each and every single one of the SWZ
wavepairs in the local ambient vacuum potential! Well, since each of those
hidden SWZ wavepairs is a bidirectional thing, different rules may apply for
only one or two of them.
In fact, it appears that a single hidden SWZ wavepair moves in the COULOMB
GAUGE (see Jackson, CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS, 2nd edn., 1975, p. 22-23
for a discussion of Coulomb gauge, which is regarded as just applying to
the "near field".) Quoting, p. 222:
"...transverse radiation fields are given [in the Coulomb or transverse
gauge] by the vector potential alone, the instantaneous Coulomb potential
contributing only to the near fields. This gauge is particularly useful
in quantum electrodynamics. A quantum-mechanical description of photons
necessitates quantization of only the vector potential."
Hey! Suddenly only a PART of EM (half of it, the vector potential in the
conventional PHI & A potential formulation) is quantized! But we continue.
Quoting p. 223:
p. 9
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p. 10
"[In the Coulomb gauge] the scalar potential 'propagates' instantly
everywhere in space. The vector potential, on the other hand, satisfies
the wave equation... with its implied finite speed pf propagation c."
Further quoting, p. 223:
"...the transverse current... extends over all space, even if J is
localized."
Now isn't that a real blast! Here we have a definitive statement by one of
the greatest electrodynamicists that the scalar potential part of EM, when
freed from the vector potential, can move at infinite velocity in the near
field, and only the presence of the vector potential limits the normal EM
wave to the speed of light. So if we want to do superluminal transmission,
we have to eliminate that vector potential and use only the scalar potential.
However, we cannot make bulk gradients of that scalar potential, for that
would make E-fields (in the conventional theory where E = -del PHI). Well,
if we impress deterministic changes (signals) upon the -del PHI's, then we
make magnetic fields and magnetic vector potential, because of the changing
E-fields. Bummer! It means that we have to use a DC potential. I.e., the
scalar potential must not allow bulk gradients to form. That means we have
to put the modulations (the "signal intelligence") inside a fixed DC
potential, upon one or a few of its composite hidden SWZ EM wave pairs.
That can and has been done.
For example, suppose we "bury up" our modulations/signals/communications
inside a DC potential, on some of those "hidden internal wave pairs" that
SWZ shows us. In other words, we "Z-modulate" [[Z for Ziolkowski. --R.A.]]
two or three of the internal Stoney/Whittaker wavepairs. But we do not make
any BULK del-PHI in our overall DC potential PHI. Hummer! A priori, the
DC scalar potential "carrying" the internal signal STARTS OUT in the "near
field", in the Coulomb gauge. We now have no vector potential associated
with this thing; that's been eliminated. Macroscopically, it's seemingly
just an old DC potential, just pure PHI. Voila! No "vector potential to
limit us to speed c" ever arises. So if we regard the vector potential as
the "breaker" that ends the "near field region", then we never get out of
the "near field region", because that now extends everywhere. The end result
is that the darn "hidden" signal now moves in the Coulomb gauge-- "inside"
the ambient vacuum potential! --and at infinite velocity. Even with only
a pretty good rendition of all this, it moves at a speed way beyond light
speed c. PERIOD. And it works. It's Fogal's invention.
On the other hand, you've got to be able to "INFOLD" the signal as a modu-
lation on some of the SWZ waves inside the scalar potential, on the "trans-
mission" end. On the "receiving" end, you've got to be able to "outfold"
the signal into the normal "bulk potential domain", so you can create E and
B fields locally and locally move some electrons for a detection. (All our
normal detectors are essentially "electron wiggle" or "electron translation"
detectors, so we've got to produce overt EM field signals (bulk potential
gradients) in the receiver. And Fogal's invention can do those two func-
tions: the infolding and the outfolding. Note we are not communicating with
OVERT EM fields and waves; those are limited to light speed, as is well-
known. Instead, we are communicating with COVERT EM fields (the SWZ internal
EM fields and waves). Those are NOT limited to light speed at all.
p. 10
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p. 11
Shortly Fogal will be filing a most formidable patent application on that
system-- the world's first demonstrable superluminal communication system,
and the "subspace" (internal EM) communication system so touted on Star Trek.
Obviously such a patent will never be granted unless it can be proven. Fogal
can prove it by actual prototype demonstration.
So as not to interfere with Fogal's filing of his patent application, I
request that you not place this material on any computer net prior to 10 days
from the time you receive this response. After then, I request that you
place it on the Keely net, and that those boys or you make the necessary
arrangements to also have it available on the Internet.
Note that I did not specify HOW the infolding and outfolding was done. That
is Fogal's invention and his secret, not mine. I just told WHAT was done,
so that superluminal communication is not only theoretically possible but
doable. (There's another long related discussion re Mach's principle and
what causes it, and how that limits the normal wave speed in vacuum to light
speed, and how using only a fraction of the "internal" channel escapes Mach's
principle and so enables the dramatic reduction of "vacuum medium drag" that
is responsible of the ordinary light speed limitation. It's just too long
for me to go into all that tonight.)
Now to some specific issues: Yes, my insight did keep growing. At first I
took the results of experiments such as by Hooper, with opposing "ordinary
waves". The effects of the core for the coils were a puzzle, but it seemed
that sometimes the "opposing normal waves" would give some G effects, and
more often they would not. What I did not realize for some time was that the
longitudinal wave can be regarded as a superposed wave/antiwave, via a single
SWZ wavepair. This agreed with Whittaker, and also now offered a sudden
inspiration as to when we got the G effect and when not. We were dealing
with four waves, not two, in the opposing ordinary waves. We had two
opposing normal waves and two opposing antiwaves, with the wave/antiwave
coupling. Two ordinary waves 180 degrees out of phase would certainly cancel
(spatially) their amplitudes (as is well-known in RAM materials and struc-
tures) but would not cancel their energies. The two antiwaves would do
likewise, spatially. The point then became, so what would happen in the
time domain? Here we got a shocker. The two antiwaves would cancel each
other's amplitude SPATIALLY, and would add energies. But looking at the
action (energy x time) aspect, their energies exist in negative time!
Well, this meant that the antiwave ACTION would come out negative, and would
then cancel the added positive wave ACTION because Sum Ewt + Sum Eaw(-t) = 0.
Therefore the sum of the whole mess was zero! Bummer! We wound up with
everything just vanishing, wherein all the action (angular momentum) seemed
to vanish. Well, this showed that the notion of simply having waves 180
degrees out of phase of itself would not give gravity effects. So that's
why mostly the Hooper approach didn't seem to do much. But if one added
nonlinear materials to the core, then one broke the linear cancellation.
Once in a while, if one got it just right, one could get some spooky gravi-
tational effects. So that was a real clue.
p. 11
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p. 12
Then we took the known (by General Relativity) facts that (i) all trapped
energy is gravitational (it is the trapped energy in mass that is gravita-
tional, not mass per se), and (ii) all potentials are gravitational anyway,
since they contain trapped energy.
So now the question became, "How the devil does one trap EM energy at a point
in space, when to exist as EM energy in space, it must be going at light
speed, by Einstein's postulate?" Bummer! How can something be moving and
not moving, simultaneously? Did a lot of thinking in terms of my fourth law
of logic, since that obviously was what was required. Looked at Spencer
Brown's law of form a little bit more. Scratched my head a lot.
Then it hit me. The potential is already accepted as "trapped EM energy".
So it contains the secret of "trapping EM energy, which must be moving and
static simultaneously." But it's regarded as "static". Well, if it's static,
then how does it "flow" down a wire? It ought to "stay in place". So it
cannot BE "static", because it FLOWS. That's called massless displacement
current d-PHI/dt. And that notion gets all confused with several
other kinds of currents, including dD/dt, dV/dt, j, i, etc. Yet its MAGNI-
TUDE at any spatial point is indeed fixed (we are discussing electrostatics
here).
Scratched my head some more. Then thought of it this way: Suppose you have
a flowing river. Suppose it's very calm on the surface, but just flowing
along. Now at each and every point on the surface, there is a fixed "value"
or "number" that will represent the FIXED MAGNITUDE of the vertical depth
of the river at that point. The set of all these scalar numbers then repre-
sents the "scalar depth field"-- or the "field of the scalar magnitude of the
depth of the river." But no one in his right mind would define the river
itself as just its "depth magnitude" scalar field. That is, the MAGNITUDE
FIELD would be scalar, but the river itself is darn sure vectorial because
it has both direction and magnitude.
The same is true of a scalar EM potential. The "scalar" function is the
field of "spatial energy density" at each spatial point where the potential
has a nonzero magnitude. But something can be flowing "under" or within
that "scalar field" and be totally vectorial, so long as the vectorial
aspects sum vectorially to zero. So here was my old idea of the zero vector
sum of two or more nonzero vectors being a scalar potential or a scalar
stress potential.
Bringing in Stoney and Whittaker, they had already shown that ANY scalar
potential (which physicists routinely and erroneously regard as just a
SCALAR MAGNITUDE field) is already composed of bidirectional EM wave pairs.
In other words, it's the MAGNITUDE OF THE LOCALLY TRAPPED EM ENERGY DENSITY
OF ALL THOSES HIDDEN INTERNAL BIDIRECTIONAL WAVES AT EACH SPATIAL POINT that
is externally "scalar" in nature. But the internal part of this "entity"
that we fragmentedly refer to as the "scalar potential" is quite vectorial.
So each Whittaker wave pair (each major component) is the key: (i) it has
to be gravitational, because the potential is already known to be gravita-
tional. So each PRIMARY COMPONENT must be gravitational. (ii) it therefore
must already contain the magic "EM energy trapping mechanism."
Voila! There it is.
p. 12
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p. 13
Well, each wave pair is A PRIORI a standing gravitational wave. And since
it is comprised totally of EM waves, that particular manner of coupling must
A PRIORI turn EM field energy into G field energy! Also, it contains the
EM trapping mechanism. That was a wave and its true time-reversed twin,
i.e., its "antiwave" twin. Here nonlinear phase conjugate optics can be
applied. It's already well-known that a phase conjugate wave replica super-
poses precisely with its wave twin, SPATIALLY. THE AMPLITUDES OF THE WAVE
AND ITS SUPERPOSED ANTIWAVE DO NOT SPATIALLY ADD, AS THEY DO IN ANY "NORMAL"
EM STANDING WAVE! It's also known that the phase conjugate replica wave is
truly time reversed (e.g., see Wheeler's delayed choice experiments, and
several others which demonstrate this fact rather conclusively.)
But we cannot see time (it's lost in the observation process, when the photon
is emitted again after being absorbed by mass to create masstime.) Photon
emission tears away the time tail, disconnecting the mass from the "stitch"
in the timestream. It leaves behind a completely 3-space object. That's
why all light observation-- which just uses the photon/mass absorption and
emission mechanism-- it well-known to be SPATIAL, not SPATIOTEMPORAL. There
is no such thing as direct measurement of time, and there has never really
been a "time-measuring clock". This is well-known, but think of it a bit.
You INFER time from a change in spatial positioning of the hands of a clock.
The clock does not directly MEASURE time, which in QM is already known to be
just a parameter and NOT an observable. Note that in our time flow generating
mechanism above, we explained why observables were spatial and not spatio-
temporal.
So now we rather much have it all. For EM force field effects to observably
exist (i.e., to cause detectable changes or perturbations), they must exist
for a finite time, else no acceleration occurs. Use the E-field as an
example. In the SPATIALLY superposed wave/antiwave pair, we have the EM
forces SPATIALLY existing, which we can represent as in the expression
[E x t] + [E x(-t)]. That means that the EM FORCE FIELDS sum to a vector
zero. But the scalar energies add SPATIALLY, when the times disappear. So
the wave/antiwave pair is devoid of net EM force action, which must exist in
time, but the spatial energy densities at the point add because they are both
positive. Further, since time does not exist in 3-space, we now have the
familiar 3-space disposition of the "trapped EM energy" in the potential
field.
So the trapping mechanism turned out to be this: Eliminate the EM impulse
(force times time) effects, by "timewise" cancellation, while leaving the
spatial addition of the energies. You do that when you couple a phase con-
jugate replica wave to its normal wave twin. That makes a true electro-
gravitational wave. A new kind of standing wave. (You can make lots of
other kinds of "scalar waves", but that is the simplest.)
Anyway, that's a sort of digest of the thinking that I went through, as the
concept evolved. That's about where I am today, except now we use jillions
of internal timestreams as "time strings" comprising a "time rope" that is
macrotime flow.
You see, we still have the "vector sum zero" in there, but we just treated
the time dimension as a sort of length, and the time-vectors cancelled. In
other words, we looked at the 4-vectors, with the addition that killing the
time destroyed any EM force
p. 13
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p. 14
changes, which a priori require some time in which to occur. It also yields
the cause of the mysterious quantum mechanical "collapse of the wave func-
tion". No wave can exist if the time it exists in suddenly ceases. You only
have 3-space when the 4th dimension fractures and ceases momentarily.
And you are quite right that the word "opposing" now takes on more than one
sense. It does not necessarily mean just "spatially" opposing.
It gets even more confusing when one realizes that we cannot see "time
reversed" things properly, because of the electrons around the atoms of
matter making up our bodies and instruments. A PRIORI, we look through a
"time-forward-only" filter. So we see true time-reversed things totally
spatially; we see them "spatially and velocity-wise" reversed. Therein lies
the difficulty in this word "opposing!"
The difference is, the true time-reversed wave (the PCR wave) will precisely
backtrack and spatially superpose with its stimulus wave, even if that stimu-
lus wave no longer ecists, and even though the two waves are antiparallel in
the time dimension! The PCR wave (in the simplest case-- it can be direct-
ionally tricked by various means) will return precisely back over the spatial
path PREVIOUSLY taken by its twin, even if that path is rather torturous, as
shown by Pepper and others. That is not at all true of a normal wave! A
normal wave will spread and scatter in many media, in which the true time-
reversed wave will precisely orient back through that same nonlinear medium
along the original track. As Pepper showed, you can do marvelous correction
of distorted images this way. Such things noticed early-on are why the
(poorly-named!) distortion correction theorem was so-named. This also makes
SELF-TARGETING (iterative mutual phase conjugation) between two separated
objects acting as phase conjugate mirrors a real hummer!
But the PCR wave is truly time reversed, and because of its reconvergence
(order restoring, negentropy) it can produce cooling instead of heating.
E.g., in the Sweet vacuum triode, the phase conjugate replicas were directed
out into the external circuitry to power the load. If one directly shorted
out the ends, there would be a brilliant flash of light, and the ends would
INSTANTLY ICE OVER, as if you had dipped the wires into liquid helium or some
such. This is very different from shorting out the ends of a normal circuit,
with normal time-forward wave power. There you get marvelous heating and
wire melting. Here you get wire freezing and no heating at all. Further,
Sweet on one occasion got himself directly into the short out of the circuit,
with quite a bit of power going through it. The most conductive parts of his
lower arm and hand-- the nerves-- were flash frozen! He required medical
treatment for that for some little time, and the condition only gradually
improved and finally healed in about a year.
The beautiful part of this nonlinear "optical" function is the fact that it
occurs easily for the lower frequencies as well, in the inner channel. That
yields the "self-targeting" mechanism that creates a self-ordering and a
quantum potential (QP). I have previously given examples of the inadvertent
creation of a quantum potential, though unrecognized by the participants/
experimenters. Refer to GRAVITOBIOLOGY, to my description of how a QP is
formed, and to the description of the U.S. air attack on Libya in 1986.
Also refer to the Lawandy experiments (see Nabil M. Lawandy; R.M. Bala-
chandran, A.S.L. Gomes and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering
media."
p. 14
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p. 15
NATURE, Letters, 368(6470), Mar. 31, 1994, p. 436-438. Researchers
of Brown University, Providence, R.I. discovered that tiny particles of ti-
tanium dioxide (a key ingredient of white paint), although randomly distri-
buted, act together to amplify light emitted by dye molecules that are
excited by a laser or some other external energy source).
This (quantum potential produced by mutual self-targeting between separated
components or systems) is also part of the hidden mechanism that Patterson
evokes in the Patterson cell, and that gives self-organizing and increases
energy collection. The reason his spheres have to be so round is to get
sufficient self-targeting that energy collection is increased to give good
overunity gain. In other words, there is a threshold at which scattering
increases and limits the "self-organizing" due to the QP mechanism I showed
in GRAVITOBIOLOGY. In the future, if I can get some time, hopefully I will
be able to write an article giving the exact mechanism of the Patterson cell.
I think his invention is magnificent! As I covered in a recent article on
WWW.HSV.COM, only a tiny fraction (nominally some 10^-13 or so) of the
Poynting energy flow S = E x H that our normal electrical circuits and devices
evoke, is collected on the carrier electrons and transported as the Slepian
vector j-PHI to the load, and dissipated therein to power it. By forming a
quantum potential, the collection percentage is increased (this is easily
shown). Patterson's approach seems to yield a collection increase of some
200 times. As I've stated before, if we can increase the energy collection
fraction, then a flashlight battery can power a battleship. And obviously
such "collection-increasing" systems can be close-looped by clamped positive
feedback, to provide a "self-powering" system. Note that the conservation
of energy law and the laws of equilibrium thermodynamics are not violated,
because the system is an open system receiving, gating, and collecting excess
energy from the vacuum, then dissipating this excess energy as the load (in
the case of the Patterson cell, as excess heat). The second law of EQUILI-
BRIUM thermodynamics does not apply to such a system, as is well-known. Non-
equilibrium thermodynamics (as per Prigogine et al) does indeed permit such
overunity systems. Else you could not run a water wheel or a windmill or a
solar cell. COP>1.0 is absolutely permissible for such systems. Any scien-
tist who objects to it on EQUILIBRIUM thermodynamics grounds should simply go
read the literature.
And perhaps you will find my explanation of the Johnson gate, the Takahashi
engine, and the Kawai engine of interest, in the same paper on the same
Internet node. REGAUGING via a free change of system potential, and hence of
the system's stored EM energy, is the master secret of overunity. It has
long been ARBITRARILY ASSUMED AWAY by the conventional electrodynamicists
when they apply the classical EM. They first simply ASSUME away the "residue"
or "leftover" scalar potentials (the gauge potentials) in the actual Heavi-
side/Maxwell force field formulation. Actually, you can use that gauge
potential term, and cause the system to CHANGE IT AT WILL, i.e., REGAUGE
ITSELF AT WILL-- thus freely refueling an electromagnetic engine directly
from the vacuum as an open system receiving excess energy from an external
source. The Heaviside/Maxwell equations in their form before the ARTIFICIAL
and tidying assumption of zero residue gauge potentials will agree fully with
you! Ain't that a whale of a blast! Regauging (free refueling the system
with stored EM energy!) has been there in the "unaltered" and "untidy"
Heaviside/Maxwell equations all along. The electrodynamicists just got too
tidy, and the circuit and engine boys never asked what the electrodynamicists
had done and why they had done it.
Anyway, I just wanted to share my thinking along these lines with you, even
though I am sorely pressed for the next several months. I very much appre-
ciate your arduous efforts in going through the material, and the hours you
have spent on reading the references. Please feel free to continue to
critique, correct, adapt, and utilize my concepts as you wish. THAT'S WHAT
ALL THIS EFFORT IS ABOUT! These notions, viewpoints,
p. 15
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p. 16
findings, etc. simply must be transferred to younger, more vigorous, better
qualified theoreticians and experimenters than I am or will ever be. I only
get disgruntled at persons who (i) will not read the references or try to
comprehend what the references say, (ii) simply want to argue normal theory
(I'm not using the conventional theory, and I have no time or inclination to
"argue"), (iii) think that everything electromagnetic is already well-under-
stood and cut and dried (nothing could be further from the truth, as the
foundations physicists know full well), or (iv) persons who start in immedi-
ately calling me names (such persons, in my view, are only interested in
dogfights and have thereby unwittingly revealed their true ancestry.) But
then none of those are consistent with the scientific method!
I am VERY pleased when the negations of the above are apparent, and also when
someone serious questions my work in a gentlemanly fashion, or when someone
CORRECTS something I have advanced, showing it to be in error. I learn from
that also! Years ago, in teaching a class, I had a sharp young student
correct my written expression for the fourth law of logic, the instant she
saw it on the board the first time! That impressed me mightily, and I quickly
admitted the error and corrected it forthwith. That student saw immediately
an error in my work that I had not uncovered in several years of dealing with
it. Darn right I was impressed, and I said so then and there!
My job, you see, is not to build a pretty doorway in all this conceptual
modeling, with nice framing and beautiful paint and fine decorations. My job
is to be a stick of dynamite and blow a gaping hole in the brick wall. Then
it must be left up to the master craftsmen (such as the Barretts, Ziolkowskis,
Wolffs, and Cornilles) to make a finished, beautiful doorway. If that can
happen, even though much of what I have done has to be adjusted, adapted, and
corrected in the doing, then we will have a new physics and these 30 odd years
of arduous effort will not have been in vain.
Sincerely and best wishes,
Tom Bearden
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