Subject: Breaking down the barriers between physics, chemistry and
Date: Wed, 1 Oct 1997 12:06:20 +0200
Organization: Department of Computer Science, U of Copenhagen
I would like to request that anyone who replies to this article on the
newsgroup please send a CC to me at
. That will be most helpful. Thank you!
- Madhavendra Puri.
EVIDENCE THAT ATOMS BEHAVE DIFFERENTLY IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
THAN OUTSIDE OF THEM
A number of chemists report that plants, animals and human beings ROUTINELY
TRANSMUTE MID-RANGE ELEMENTS (for example, potassium into calcium or magnesium
into calcium) AS PART OF THEIR ORDINARY DAILY METABOLISM.
These transmutations obey rules such as: Mg + O => Ca; K + H => Ca. This is
revolutionary since, according to current physical theory, the energy levels
required for such transmutations are billions of times higher than what is
available in biological systems. Equally inexplicable fission reactions such
as Ca => Mg + O; Ca => K + H are also reported.
But revolutions in physics have repeatedly occurred, such as the quantum
revolution in which the radical property of non-locality, previously
considered impossible, is now accepted by physicists (see Aspect and Grangier
1986, Bransden and Joachain 1989, p.671-681, Chiao et al 1993, Squires 1990,
p.173, Rae 1986, p.25-44, and Penrose 1990, p.369).
What I am presenting here is not the "cold fusion" of Fleischmann and Pons
which, as far as I know, lacks clear evidence of actual fusion. Even if the
Fleischmann and Pons effect turns out to be actual fusion, it is only the
fusion of isotopes of the lightest element hydrogen under special laboratory
conditions which is quite different from the UNEQUIVOCAL FUSION AND FISSION OF
MID-RANGE elements found in biological transmutation reports.
Now let us examine the evidence for biological transmutation.
Crabs, shellfish and crayfish have shells made largely of calcium. A crab 17
cm by 10 cm has a shell weighing around 350 grams. Periodically these animals
shed their shell and create a new one. This is called molting. When molting, a
crab is very vulnerable and hides away from all other creatures so it can not
get calcium by preying on other creatures.
According to French chemist C. Louis Kervran of the Conseil d'Hygiene in
Paris, seawater contains far too little calcium to account for the rapid
production of a shell (the calcium content of sea water is about 0.042% and a
crab can form a new shell in little more than one day). If the entire body of
a crab is analyzed for calcium, it is found to contain only enough calcium to
produce 3% of the shell (even taking into account the calcium carbonate stored
in the hepato-pancreas just before molting).
Even in water completely devoid of calcium, shellfish can still create their
calcium-bearing shells as shown by an experiment performed at the Maritime
Laboratory of Roscoff: "A crayfish was put in a sea water basin from which
calcium carbonate had been removed by precipitation; the animal made its shell
anyway." (Kervran 1972, p.58)
"Chemical analysis made on animals secreting their shells has revealed that
calcium carbonate is formed on the outer side of a membrane although on the
opposite side of the membrane, where matter enters, there is no calcium. This
fact has left specialists perplexed." (Kervran 1972, p.58)
Seawater contains a sufficient amount of magnesium to form a shell if we
accept Kervran's proposition that crabs routinely transmute magnesium into
calcium; Mg + O => Ca.
It would be interesting to put a crayfish in water devoid of both calcium and
magnesium and see if it can still create its shell.
Normal egg shells produced by hens contain calcium. Kervran (1972, p.41)
reported an experiment in which hens were confined in an area in which there
was no source of calcium and no calcium was present in their diet. The calcium
deficiency became clearly manifested after a few days when the hens began to
lay eggs with soft shells. Then purified mica (which contains potassium) was
given to the hens.
Kervran (1972, p.41) described what then transpired: "The hens jumped on the
mica and began scratching around it very rapidly, panting over it; then they
rested, rolling their heads on it, threw it into the air, and began scratching
it again. The next day eggs with normal shells (weight 7 grams) were laid.
Thus, in the 20 hours that intervened, the hens transformed a supply of
potassium into calcium. ... An experiment of this kind, using the same mica,
was undertaken with guinea-fowls over a period of forty days. The
administering of the mica was suspended three times and each time a soft-
shelled egg was laid ... ."
One might suggest that the calcium in the egg shells was borrowed from the
bones of the hens. But if this is true, why were soft eggs laid when the mica
was withheld and normal eggs laid when mica was given to the hens?
In order to avoid the conclusion that the hens transmuted potassium into
calcium, one would have to show that mica somehow stimulates a metabolic
pathway in which calcium is removed from the hen's bones and used in the
production of the egg shells.
This could be completely refuted by feeding the hens mica (and of course
absolutely no calcium) for such a long period of time that all the calcium in
their bones would have been completely exhausted. If after that time the hens
still produce calcium-bearing egg shells, we must conclude that the calcium in
the egg shells is not being taken from the bones. At that point, we seem to
have no choice but to acknowledge the transmutation of potassium into calcium
within the hens.
Kervran (1972, p.52) described experiments performed in 1959 by the French
government in the Sahara desert. The government was interested in determining
the nutritional requirements of petroleum workers in the extreme heat
prevalent in the desert.
In the first experiment, conducted near a place called Ouargla, the total
amount of magnesium ingested per day per man was measured and compared with
the amount excreted. It was found that, on the average, each man daily
excreted 117.2 milligrams of magnesium more than he ingested. Thus, each day,
each man lost on the average 117.2 milligrams of magnesium.
Now we must consider how much magnesium is on reserve in the human body: it
turns out that the body is not able to mobilize more than 5000 milligrams of
magnesium. Thus, at a daily loss of 117.2 milligrams, it is clear that after
50 days the bodies of the petroleum workers should have been completely
depleted of magnesium. But the experiment was conducted for 180 days and each
day each man excreted on the a verage 117.2 milligrams more than he ingested.
The second experiment lasted for 240 days and was conducted near Tindouf which
has a drier climate. This time each man excreted each day an average of 256
milligrams of magnesium more than he ingested. Under these conditions, after
20 days, each man should have been completely depleted of magnesium; but
somehow they survived for 220 days thereafter. It seems difficult to avoid the
conclusion that the human body is able to create magnesium.
Biochemist H. Komaki of the University of Mukogawa in Japan reported that a
number of different families of microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and
Saccharomyces cerevisiae create potassium during growth. (Komaki 1965, 1967)
Kervran described a germination experiment using ryegrass seeds (type Rina)
performed in 1971 by the Laboratory of the Societe des Agriculteurs de France
(Kervran 1972, p.107). Out of an initial group of 2000 seeds, 1000 were set
aside as a control batch and the other 1000 were germinated.
The control batch weighed 2.307 grams before drying and 2.035 grams after
drying. These 2.035 grams were analyzed and found to contain 3.02 milligrams
of magnesium, 6.97 milligrams of potassium, 6.00 milligrams of calcium and
0.021 milligrams of copper. The magnesium, calcium and copper contents were
determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and the potassium content was
determined by flame emission.
The 1000 seeds to be germinated were germinated for 29 days in Petri dishes
under a plastic sheet to insure that no dust could get in. Aside from 430
milliliters of Evian water, absolutely nothing else was supplied to the seeds
during germination. 430 milliliters of Evian water was found to contain 10.32
milligrams of magnesium, 0.39 milligrams of potassium, 33.11 milligrams of
calcium and 0.00 milligrams of copper.
After the 29 day germination period, the plants were converted to ashes under
high temperature and the ashes and residual Evian water in the Petri dishes
were found to contain 3.20 milligrams of magnesium, 16.67 milligrams of
potassium, 36.50 milligrams of calcium and 0.10 milligrams of copper.
Before germination there were 6.97 milligrams of potassium in the seeds.
During germination 0.39 milligrams of potassium were added to the growing
plants (this came from the Evian water). If atomic nuclei can not be altered
in biological systems, we expect that after germination there should be 6.97 +
0.39 = 7.36 milligrams of potassium in the plants and residual Evian water.
But this was not the case.
After germination the plants and residual Evian water were found to contain
16.67 milligrams of potassium. Thus 9.31 milligrams of potassium were
apparently created during germination.
Before germination there were 3.02 milligrams of magnesium in the seeds.
During germination 10.32 milligrams of magnesium were added to the growing
plants (this came from the Evian water). If atomic nuclei cannot be altered in
biological systems, we expect that after germination there should be 10.32 +
3.02 = 13.34 milligrams of magnesium in the plants and residual Evian water.
But after germination the plants and residual Evian water were found to
contain only 3.20 milligrams of magnesium. Thus 10.14 milligrams of magnesium
were apparently destroyed during germination. Before germination there were
0.021 milligrams of copper in the seeds. During germination 0.00 milligrams
of copper were added to the growing plants.
Assuming that atomic nuclei cannot be altered, we expect that after
germination there should still be 0.021 milligrams of copper in the plants and
residual Evian water. But it turned out that after germination the plants and
residual Evian water were found to contain 0.10 milligrams of copper. Thus
0.079 milligrams of copper were apparently created during germination.
Before germination there were 6.00 milligrams of calcium in the seeds. During
germination 33.11 milligrams of calcium were added to the growing plants (from
the Evian water). Assuming that nuclei can not be altered, we expect that
after germination there should be 39.11 milligrams of calcium in the plants
and residual Evian water.
However, after germination the plants and residual Evian water were found to
contain 36.50 milligrams of calcium. Thus 2.61 milligrams of calcium were
apparently destroyed during germination.
The following challenge can be made: no one knows how much potassium, calcium,
magnesium and copper was in the seeds before they were germinated. It was
assumed that the amounts of these elements was not significantly different
from the amounts of these elements in the control batch.
How do we know this is true? What should have been done is to start with a 100
grams of seeds, mix them around thoroughly, weigh out 50 batches of 2.000
grams each, randomly select 25 of these as control batches, determine the
amounts of potassium, calcium, magnesium and copper in these batches and note
the maximum variation in these elements among these batches.
The remaining 25 batches can then be germinated and the plants analyzed for
element content. In this way we would have some measure of the variation among
different batches (both germinated and control).
On the positive side, it can be argued that since the seeds of the control and
germinated batches were of the same type, the variation in element content
between these two batches was not significant. Some support for this idea can
be found in the data provided by chemist D. Long of the Michaelis Nutritional
Research Laboratory in Harpenden, England.
Long analyzed (using atomic spectroscopy) six batches of ryegrass seeds (each
of which weighed 5.4 grams before drying) and discovered that the difference
in potassium content between the batch containing the greatest amount of
potassium and the batch containing the least amount of potassium was 0.054
milligrams of potassium per gram of dry seed weight. Similarly, the maximum
difference in magnesium content was 0.033 milligrams per gram of dry seed
weight, that of calcium was 0.091 milligrams per gram of dry seed weight, and
that of copper was 1.19 micrograms per gram of dry seed weight. (Long 1971,
Kervran proposed that the plants performed the following nuclear reactions: Mg
+ O => Ca; Ca => K + H. Kervran did not discuss the reaction involving copper.
Based on experience derived from similar experiments, Kervran said that if the
seeds are germinated in doubly-distilled water, the amount of transmuted
material is much smaller and may fall within the range of experimental error
and therefore not be significant. The reason for this is that each kind of
plant is only able to transmute certain elements into certain other elements.
Thus the experimenter must provide the plant with a certain amount of certain
elements if he wants to observe a large amount of transmuted material. For
germinating ryegrass seeds, Evian water is the perfect growth medium because
it provides this particular kind of plant with the elements it needs.
Kervran (1972, p.132) also described a series of experiments in which wheat
and oat seeds were germinated "on porous ashless paper saturated with a
fertilizing solution of salts dissolved in water. The solution was free of
In the case of wheat (Roux Clair) there was 3.34 times more calcium in the
plants than in the seeds; in the case of one kind of oats (Noire du Prieure)
there was 4.16 times more calcium in the plants than in the seeds; in the case
of another kind of oats (Panache de Roye) there was 4.51 times more calcium in
the plants than in the seeds.
The calcium content was determined by two independent methods (conventional
chemical analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy); both methods agreed
closely. Kervran performed more than 20 such experiments, mostly on oat seeds.
Kervran (1972, p.133) mentioned that the moon plays an important role in the
production of calcium. The above huge increases in calcium were obtained in
experiments in which the germination started at the new moon and stopped on
the second full moon (after 6 weeks). This is an important consideration for
those who attempt to duplicate these results. A lunar influence on the
metabolic activity of various plants and animals was also reported by
biologist Frank A. Brown. (Gauquelin 1969, p.131-133)
D. Long questioned Kervran's methods of analysis. Long (1971, p.9) said that
Kervran had made (in some of his earlier experiments) the mistake of comparing
the ash weight of the control batch with the ash weight of the plants after
germination. Kervran may have made this mistake in some of his earlier
experiments but he did not do so in the ryegrass, wheat and oat germination
experiments described above.
In these experiments, he rightly compared the weight of the control batch with
the weight of the seeds to be germinated. In other words, the weight
comparison was done on the two batches of seeds before one batch was
germinated. This is the correct procedure as acknowledged by Long himself.
Long germinated ryegrass seeds in deionized water and reported that he was
unable to observe a transmutation of elements. As discussed above, this is to
be expected since without a sufficient input of certain elements, there is
insufficient material to be transmuted.
A more serious criticism is Long's claim that he corresponded with Kervran who
advised him to germinate green lentil seeds (Leguminacae) in water containing
certain minerals. Long reported that although he did this he was still unable
to observe a significant transmutation of elements.
But Long did not attempt to duplicate the best of Kervran's germination
experiments, namely the ryegrass, wheat and oat experiments described above. I
hope that many scientists will do these experiments and report the results to
the scientific community.
In the 1950s Pierre Baranger, a professor and the director of the Laboratory
of Organic Chemistry at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, performed a large
number of germination experiments and concluded that plants routinely
transmute elements. Baranger did his experiments independently of Kervran.
Baranger said: "My results seem impossible, but here they are. I took every
precaution. I repeated the experiments many times. I made thousands of
analyses for years. I had the results verified by third parties who did not
know what I was investigating. I used several methods. I changed my
experimenters. But there is no escape. We must submit to the evidence: plants
transmute elements." (Michel 1959, p.82)
I tried to get more information by writing letters to the Ecole Polytechnique,
the Societe des Agriculteurs de France and the Agronomie Research National
Institute, but I received no reply.
In 1975 chemists O. Heroux and D. Peter of the Division of Biological Sciences
of the National Research Council of Canada conducted a meticulous experiment
with rats (Heroux and Peter 1975). They measured the amount of magnesium
ingested through food, water (and even air) as well as the amount of magnesium
excreted in the form of urine and feces over three periods of time: 69 days,
240 days and 517 days.
In the case in which the rats were fed a diet in which the amount of magnesium
ingested was less than the amount of magnesium excreted, it was expected that
the total amount of magnesium in the body would decrease. In fact, long before
the 517th day of the experiment it was expected that there would be zero
magnesium in the body.
However, when the rats were analyzed for total magnesium on the 517th day,
each rat contained, on the average, 82 milligrams of magnesium. The method
used to determine the amount of magnesium in the body, food, water, air, feces
and urine was atomic absorption spectroscopy.
Heroux and Peter verified the accuracy of their determinations by giving
samples to two other laboratories (the Division of Chemistry at the National
Research Council and the Department of Chemistry at McMaster University); both
of these laboratories obtained essentially the same results as Heroux and
Peter at the Division of Biology at the National Research Council.
Finally, other methods were used (such as destructive neutron activation and
spectrographic emission) and these methods yielded results very similar to
those obtained using atomic absorption spectroscopy.
I do not advise the replication of this experiment since it involved killing
the rats in order to analyze their bodies for magnesium. Experiments
involving animal killing are not required since there are many ways (as
described above) to verify biological transmutation without such killing.
Albert, D. "Bohm's Alternative to Quantum Mechanics." Scientific American, May
1994, pages 32-39
Aspect, A. and Grangier, P. "Experiments on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type
Correlations with Pairs of Visible Photons."
In Quantum Concepts in Space and Time (edited by R. Penrose and C. J. Isham).
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986
Bohm, D. and Peat, F. Science, Order and Creativity.
New York: Bantam Books, 1987
Bransden, B. and Joachain, C. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics.
Essex: Longman Group U.K. Limited, 1989
Chiao, R., Kwait, P. and Steinberg, A. "Faster than light?"
Scientific American, August 1993, pages 38-46
Darnell, J., Lodish, H. and Baltimore, D. Molecular Cell Biology.
New York: W. H. Freeman and Co., 1990
Gauquelin, M. The Cosmic Clocks. London: Peter Owen, 1969
Heroux, O. and Peter, D. "Failure of balance measurements to predict actual
retention of magnesium and calcium by rats as determined by direct carcass
analysis." Journal of Nutrition, 1975, volume 105, pages 1157-1167
Kervran, C. Louis. Biological Transmutation.
New York: Swan House Publishing Company, 1972
Komaki, H. "Sur la formation de sels de potassium par differentes familles de
microorganismes dans un milieu sans potassium." Revue de Pathologie Comparee,
Paris, September 1965
Komaki, H. "Production de proteines par 29 souches de microorganismes et
augmentation du potassium en milieu de culture sodique, sans potassium." Revue
de Pathologie Comparee, Paris, April 1967
Long, D. B. "Laboratory Report on Biological Transmutation."
Monograph of the Henry Doubleday Research Society.
Braintree, Essex, England, September 1971
Michel, A. "Un savant francais bouleverse la science atomique."
Science et Vie, Paris, 1959, pages 81-87
Penrose, R. The Emperor's New Mind. New York: Vintage Press, 1990
Rae, A. Quantum Physics: Illusion or Reality? Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1986
Squires, E. Conscious Mind in the Physical World.
Bristol: Adam Hilger, 1990